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Londen Battle of the Bottles

Londen Battle of the Bottles



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Super Toskaans laat klante die beste Italiaanse wyne kies

Italiaanse wynkroeg Super Toskaans, in die Londense woonbuurt Spitalfields, bied 'n maandelikse Battle of the Bottles aan wat begin op 25 September. Met die proe van wyn kan gaste vier Italiaanse Super-Toskaanse wyne probeer uit die wynlys van die onderneming, gekies deur eienaar Nick Grossi, teen vier Italiaanse uitdagers. gekies deur Tom Harrow van WineChap.

Die wyne wat deur die skare goedgekeur word, bly op die wynlys van die restaurant, terwyl dié wat nie die snit haal nie, verwyder word. Nuwe uitdagers word by elke maand se kragmeting gevoeg.

Super Tuscan, wat in Februarie geopen is, bied heerlike Italiaanse kos wat voorberei is deur die man-en-vrou-span Maurizio Sgroi en Rita Pisticello, oorspronklik van Sicilië. Die wynbar is vernoem na die wyn wat ontstaan ​​het uit 'n beweging in Toscane in die sewentigerjare waarin wynprodusente die tradisionele klassifikasieregulasies verbreek het deur druiwe soos Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot en Syrah te gebruik en sodoende die vermoë verloor om hul wyne as Chianti te benoem. of ander tradisionele soorte - maar produseer buitengewone wyne in die proses.

Kaartjies vir Battle of the Bottles kos £ 49 en sluit die wynproe en kos in. Gaste wat die geleentheid bywoon, kan deelneem aan 'n tekening om 'n bottel wyn met die hoogste telling uit die proe te wen om die volgende keer as hulle by Super Tuscan eet, te geniet. Future Battles of the Bottles is op 30 Oktober en 20 November.

Lauren Mack is die reisredakteur by The Daily Meal. Volg haar op Twitter @lmack.


Duitse ontwerper haal plastiek uit sjampoe -bottel en vervang dit met seep

Sjampoe- en seepkombinasies is niks nuuts nie, want as u een produk in dieselfde bottel kan koop, is dit 'n duidelike oorwinning.

Maar daar is ook die kwessie van eenmalige plastiekafval. Die meeste van hierdie produkte word in plastiek verpak, en ons weet almal hoe dit is oefen.

Aangesien die meeste bottels sjampoe in die nat kamer van 'n badkamer lewe, is papier onprakties en glas is onveilig. Daarom kom dit gewoonlik in 'n plastiekbottel, ondanks die ekologiese impak. Boonop moet dit as vloeistof in 'n lekbestande verpakking kom wat duursaam genoeg is om te vervoer. Daar is dus baie duidelike struikelblokke as dit kom by die vermindering van afval.

Dit het die ontwerper in Berlyn nie ongemerk verbygegaan nie Jonna Breitenhuber, wat besluit het om 'n sjampoe-bottel sonder afval te skep, wat ook 'n seep is, wat twee badprodukte kombineer wat die gebruik van plastiek vir eenmalige gebruik suksesvol vermy SEPBOT.

Die bottels los stadig op en bestaan ​​uit funksionele seep. Elke pakkie het 'n ingeboude gat waarmee gebruikers 'n tou kan lus, sodat dit maklik in die stort kan hang, terwyl 'n snyer ook dien as 'n deksel wat weer toegesluit kan word en wat ontwerp is om hergebruik te word op die volgende seepbottel . Die seep is ook biologies afbreekbaar, so as die verbruiker dit nie wil gebruik nie, breek dit veilig in die vullis.

Dit is nie die eerste beplan om seep te gebruik om vloeibare sjampoe -bottels te skep, en dit is ook nie die eerste keer dat 'n reiniger gebruik is om vullis af te lei nie vullisterreine, maar op hierdie stadium neem ons soveel as moontlik mooi ontwerpte opsies.


'Londen na Delhi' -siklus samel kontant in vir die COVID -krisis in Indië

LONDEN - Vir die Britse IT -konsultant Yogen Shah is die COVID -19 -krisis in Indië baie persoonlik.

Die foto's van mense wat aan suurstofbottels in die strate van Nieu -Delhi gekoppel is en pasiënte wat beddens in oorvol hospitale deel, herinner hom aan sy oom in Indië, wat onlangs die siekte opgedoen het.

So het Shah by vrywilligers aangesluit uit een van die grootste Hindoe -tempels in Brittanje, wat 500 000 pond ($ 690,000) wou insamel deur 7 600 kilometer op stilstaande fietse - ongeveer die afstand van Londen na Delhi - in 48 uur in te samel.

'Ek dink dat elke persoon van Indiese oorsprong iemand daardeur sal beïnvloed', het Shah (40) Saterdag buite die tempel in die noordweste van Londen gesê. 'En oral in die wêreld wat u COVID het, voel u vir die mens, voel u vir die persoon, of dit nou 'n Indiese oorsprong is of nie.'

Die rit by Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in die Neasden -woonbuurt in Londen is een van die vele fondsinsamelings wat in die Verenigde Koninkryk plaasvind, terwyl lede van die Indiese diaspora Indië wil help om die woedende pandemie te beveg. Die British Asian Trust, 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie wat deur prins Charles gestig is, het 'n dringende beroep gedoen om suurstofkonsentrators te koop, wat suurstof uit die lug kan onttrek wanneer hospitaalvoorrade opraak.

Indië het Saterdag meer as 400,000 nuwe COVID-19-gevalle aangeteken, die eerste keer dat daaglikse infeksies daardie mylpaal bereik het. Die land het die afgelope 24 uur 3,523 sterftes aan koronavirus aangemeld, wat die totale sterftes in virus tot 211,853 laat styg het. Kenners meen albei syfers is onderaandeel.

In normale tye kan Britse Indiese gesinne reageer op 'n krisis in die vaderland deur 'n vliegtuigkaartjie te koop en terug te gaan om hul familielede te help. Maar dit is nie normale tye vir die 1,4 miljoen mense in die VK wat Indiese wortels het nie.

Op soek na 'n manier om te help, het lede van die Hindoe -tempel in Neasden besluit om 'n geldinsameling te reël wat sosiaal distansieer en jongmense lok. Hulle besluit op die bikeathon omdat hulle Londen en Nieu-Delhi ook nader aan mekaar wou bring-die twee hoofstede in gees verbind, alhoewel die meeste reis deur COVID-19-beperkings belet word.

Die behoefte is erg, maar ook die boodskap van solidariteit, het Tarun Patel, een van die organiseerders, gesê.

'Indië honger na suurstof,' het hy gesê. 'Ons moet help.'

Organiseerders het 'n bank van 12 fietse voor die tempel gerangskik, met sy koepels en torings wat net uit die steier kom. Saam met tempels in Leicester en Chigwell, het hulle 750 ruiters gelok.

Elke vrywilliger kry 'n uur op die fiets - 50 minute om die kilometers op te tel en 10 minute om die fiets te ontsmet voordat hy dit oorhandig. Elke vrywilliger het 'n fondsinsamelingsblad opgestel wat 'n algemene doelwit vir geldinsameling bied.

Die pogings sal nie die pandemiese katastrofe van Indië oplos nie, maar die motorfietsryers van Brittanje wil hê dat almal in Indië moet weet dat hulle hul bes gedoen het om te red.

'U is nie alleen in hierdie stryd nie,' het Patel gesê. “Ons is by jou. Ons kan geografies duisende kilometers ver wees, maar ons is by u. ''


Inhoud

In Maart is vyf mense dood in 'n gekombineerde voertuig- en mesaanval by Westminster. Einde Mei het 'n selfmoordbomaanvaller 22 mense tydens 'n Ariana Grande -konsert in 2017 in Manchester Arena doodgemaak. [10] Na die bombardement in Manchester is die Britse bedreiging van terreurbedreiging tot 'kritiek', die hoogste vlak, tot 27 Mei, toe dit tot ernstig verlaag is. [10] [11]

Die aanval is uitgevoer met 'n wit Renault Master wat vroeër dieselfde aand [12] in Harold Hill, Havering deur Khuram Butt gehuur is. Hy was van plan om 'n vragmotor van 7,5 ton te huur, maar is geweier omdat hy nie betaalbesonderhede verstrek het nie. Die aanvallers was gewapen met kombuismesse van 30 cm met keramiek lemme wat hulle met leerbande aan hul polse vasgemaak het. Hulle het ook valse plofbande voorberei deur waterbottels in grys band te draai. [13]

Om 3:58 BST (UTC+1) op 3 Junie 2017 het die bakkie suidwaarts oor London Bridge gereis en ses minute later teruggekeer, oor die brug noordwaarts gegaan, 'n U-draai gemaak aan die noordelike einde en dan suidwaarts gery oor die brug. Dit het drie keer die sypaadjie gemonteer en verskeie voetgangers getref en twee doodgemaak. [14] Getuies het gesê dat die bakkie teen 'n hoë snelheid gery het. [15] [16] [17] 999 noodoproepe is die eerste keer om 22:07 aangeteken. [18] Daar is later gevind dat die bakkie 13 wynbottels bevat wat ontvlambare vloeistof bevat met lappe wat daarin gestop is, asook blaasvlamme. [13]

Die bussie het in Borough High Street, [19], neergestort nadat hy die sentrale reservaat oorgesteek het. Die bande van die bakkie is deur die sentrale reservaat vernietig en die aanvallers het die voertuig verlaat, gewapen met messe. Toe hardloop die drie aanvallers by die trappe af na Green Dragon Court, waar hulle vyf mense doodmaak buite en naby die Boro Bistro -kroeg. [20] [21] [14] Nadat hulle die Boro Bistro -kroeg aangeval het, het die aanvallers die trappe opgetrek na Borough High Street en drie omstanders aangeval. Die polisie het probeer om die aanvallers te beveg, maar is met 'n mes gesteek, en Ignacio Echeverría het hulle gehelp deur Redouane en moontlik Zaghba met sy skaatsplank te slaan. Echeverría is later buite Lobos Meat en Tapas vermoor. [14] Lede van die publiek het bottels en stoele na die aanvallers gegooi. Getuies het berig dat die aanvallers 'This is for Allah' geskree het. [22] [23] [24] [25]

Mense in en om 'n aantal ander restaurante en kroeë langs Stoneystraat is ook aangeval. [23] [24] [25] Tydens die aanval is 'n onbekende man deur Rachid Redouane gespaar, maar ondanks baie pogings is die man nooit gevind nie. [26] 'n Roemeense bakker het een van die aanvallers met 'n krat oor die kop geslaan voordat hy 20 mense in 'n bakkery binne die Borough Market beskutting gegee het. [27]

Een man het die drie aanvallers met sy vuiste in die Black and Blue -steakhuis bestry en geskree: "Fok jou, ek is Millwall", wat aan die publiek wat in die restaurant was, die geleentheid gebied het om weg te hardloop. [28] Hy is agt keer in die hande, bors en kop gesteek. Hy is in die St Thomas -hospitaal geopereer en is op 4 Junie van die kritieke lys verwyder. [29] 'n Britse vervoerspolisiebeampte, gewapen met 'n knuppel, het ook die aanvallers aangevat, wat verskeie steekwonde opgedoen het en gevolglik tydelik in sy regteroog uit die oog verloor het. [30] Polisiekonstabels, Liam Jones en Stewart Henderson, wat buite diens was, het noodhulp verleen aan ernstig beseerde lede van die publiek voordat hulle meer as 150 mense in die Thameside Inn beskerm en deur die Metropolitan Marine Support Unit (MSU) en RNLI Boats na die noorde ontruim het. oewer van die Teems. [31]

Die drie aanvallers is toe doodgeskiet deur gewapende beamptes van die Stad Londen en die Metropolitaanse polisiedienste agt minute nadat die aanvanklike noodoproep gemaak is. [19] CCTV -beeldmateriaal wys hoe die drie aanvallers in Borough Market op die gewapende beamptes hardloop, die aanvallers is 20 sekondes later doodgeskiet. [32] Altesaam 46 rondtes is deur drie City of London en vyf Metropolitaanse polisiebeamptes afgevuur. [33]

Na -bewerking

Die Metropolitaanse Polisie het tydens die aanval [34] kennisgewings van 'Run, Hide, Tell' via sosiale media uitgereik [34] en gevra dat die publiek kalm en waaksaam moet bly. [35]

Alle geboue in die omgewing van London Bridge is ontruim, [36] en London Bridge, Borough en Bank Underground -stasies is op versoek van die polisie gesluit. [37] Die hoofstasie by London Bridge, Waterloo East, Charing Cross en Cannon Street is ook gesluit. [38] Die minister van binnelandse sake het die ontplooiing van 'n militêre eenheid teen terroriste van die Special Air Service (SAS) goedgekeur. [39] Die helikopters wat die SAS vervoer het, het op die London Bridge geland ter ondersteuning van die Metropolitaanse polisie weens kommer dat daar moontlik meer aanvallers in die algemeen is. [40]

Die Metropolitan Police Marine Policing Unit het bote op die Teems gestuur, met die hulp van die Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), om by te dra tot die ontruiming van die gebied en te kyk na enige ongevalle wat van die brug afgeval het. [41]

'N Steekvoorval het om 23:45 in Vauxhall plaasgevind, wat veroorsaak het dat die Vauxhall -stasie kortliks gesluit is [42]. [43]

Om 04:45 op 4 Junie het beheerde ontploffings van die aanvallers se bombaadjies plaasgevind, wat as vals beskou is. [16]

'N Noodsaaklike COBR -vergadering is die oggend van 4 Junie gehou. [20] [44] London Bridge se hoofspoor- en metrostasies het gedurende 4 Junie gesluit gebly, [45] terwyl Borough -metrostasie die aand weer oopgemaak het. 'N Koord is op die toneel van die aanval gevestig. [46] London Bridge -stasie heropen om 05:00 op Maandag 5 Junie weer. [47]

Burgemeester van Londen, Sadiq Khan, het gesê dat daar 'n toename in haatmisdade en islamofobiese voorvalle was ná die aanval. [48]

Nuwe veiligheidsmaatreëls is ingestel op agt sentrale Londense brûe na die aanval om die waarskynlikheid van verdere voertuigaanvalle te verminder, met betonversperrings geïnstalleer. [13] [49] Die hindernisse is deur kritici gekritiseer omdat dit gedurende spitstye ernstige opeenhoping in fietsrybane veroorsaak het. [50]

Borough Market heropen op 14 Junie. [51]

Slagoffers volgens nasionaliteit
Land Nommer
Frankryk 3
Australië 2
Kanada 1
Spanje 1
Verenigde Koninkryk 1
Totaal 8

Agt burgerlikes is dood: een Spanjaard, een Brit, twee Australiërs, [52] een Kanadese en drie Franse burgers [53] is deur die aanvallers doodgemaak en die drie aanvallers self is deur gewapende polisie vermoor. 48 mense is beseer in die aanval, waaronder een Nieu -Seelander, twee Australiërs, twee Duitsers [54] en vier Franse burgers van die 48 mense wat in die hospitaal opgeneem is, waarvan 21 aanvanklik in 'n kritieke toestand was. [16] [55] [56] [57] Enkele dae na die aanval is een liggaam uit die Teems naby Limehouse gevind. [58] Twee van die sterftes is veroorsaak in die aanvanklike voertuigram-aanval, terwyl die oorblywende ses doodgesteek is. [14]

Vier polisiebeamptes was onder die beseerdes in die aanval. 'N Britse vervoerbeampte is met 'n mes gesteek en ernstige beserings aan sy kop, gesig en nek opgedoen. [59] 'n Polisiebeampte wat nie diens doen nie, is ernstig beseer toe hy met 'n mes gesteek is. [60] Twee ander polisiebeamptes het kop- en armbeserings opgedoen. [61] 'n Onbekende omstander het 'n toevallige skietwond ontvang as gevolg van die polisie se skietgeweer, wat 'nie kritiek' was nie. [62]

Op 4 Junie het die minister van binnelandse sake, Amber Rudd, gesê: "Ons is vol vertroue dat hulle radikale Islamitiese terroriste was, hoe hulle geïnspireer is, en ons moet meer uitvind oor waar hierdie radikalisering vandaan kom." [7] Amaq News Agency, 'n aanlynwinkel wat verband hou met die Islamitiese Staat van Irak en Sirië (ISIS), het gesê die aanvallers was ISIS -vegters. [63] Op 5 Junie is twee van die aanvallers geïdentifiseer as Khuram Shazad Butt en Rachid Redouane. [64] [65] Die derde van die drie aanvallers, Youssef Zaghba, is die volgende dag geïdentifiseer. [6]

Khuram Shazad Butt Edit

Butt (gebore 20 April 1990) [13] was 'n gebore Pakistaanse Britse burger wie se familie uit Jhelum kom. Hy het grootgeword in Brittanje en woon in Plaistow. [66] Hy het 'n vrou en twee kinders gehad. Bure het aan die BBC gesê dat Butt by die polisie aangemeld is omdat hy probeer het om kinders te radikaliseer. [67] Hy was by die polisie bekend as 'n 'swaargewig' [68] lid van die verbode ekstremistiese groep al-Muhajiroun. [69] 'n BBC-onderhoudvoerder het gesê dat hy in 2013 'n mondelinge konfrontasie met Butt gehad het nadat 'n ander volgeling van Al-Muhajiroun Fusilier Lee Rigby vermoor het. [70]

Butt was deel van 'n al-Muhajiroun-veldtog in 2015 om Moslems te intimideer wat beplan het om in die Britse verkiesings van daardie jaar te stem, op die basis dat dit in Islam verbied is. [70] Hy was bekend daarvoor dat hy uiterste standpunte gehad het, omdat hy van twee plaaslike moskees belet was. [71] Hy verskyn in 'n dokumentêr van Channel 4 Television in 2016 Die Jihadis langsaan, wat wys hoe hy met die polisie stry oor die ontvouing van 'n ISIL -swart vlag in Regent's Park. [72] [73] Volgens 'n vriend is hy radikaliseer deur die YouTube -video's van die Amerikaanse Moslem -haatprediker Ahmad Musa Jibril. [74] [75] [76] [77] Dit was bekend dat Butt dwelms geneem het voordat hy radikaliseer word. Na radikalisering begin Butt sy bure op straat stop en vra of hulle in die moskee was. [78]

Butt het gewerk vir 'n man wat beskuldig word van die opleiding van Mohammad Sidique Khan, die leier van die bombardement in Londen in Julie 2005. Die polisie en MI5 het van Butt geweet en hy is ondersoek in 2015. Die ondersoek is later "in die onderste rakke geplaas", [79] en sy lêer word as 'n lae prioriteit beskou. [80]

Butt het soms die lessenaar van die Ummah Fitness Center -gimnasium beman, waar hy gereeld gebid het. [81] CCTV -beeldmateriaal is vrygestel van Butt, Redouane en Zaghba wat buite die gimnasium vergader het dae voor die aanval. [82] 'n Senior figuur by 'n plaaslike moskee het die gimnasium by die polisie aangemeld. [83]

Die New York Times gesê dat Butt en sy broer deel was van die Britse regering Voorkom program, wat daarop gemik is om mense te keer om terroriste te word, en wat vermeende radikale by die polisieprogramme aanmeld. [84] Ten tyde van die aanval was hy op borgtog van die polisie na 'n bewering van bedrog, alhoewel die polisie van plan was om nie meer op te tree nie weens 'n gebrek aan bewyse. Hy is voorheen deur die polisie gewaarsku vir bedrog in 2008 en algemene aanranding in 2010. [85]

Rachid Redouane Wysig

Redouane (gebore 31 Julie 1986) was 'n mislukte asielsoeker in die Verenigde Koninkryk, wie se aansoek in 2009 geweier is [86] en wat nie voorheen aan die polisie bekend was nie. Hy het beweer dat hy óf Marokkaans óf Libies is. [65]

Redouane het as banketbakker gewerk en in 2012 trou hy tydens 'n seremonie in Ierland met 'n Ierse vrou. Hy het sy vrou geslaan en geboelie. Sy is uiteindelik van hom geskei nadat hy probeer het om sy ekstremistiese oortuigings op haar af te dwing. [87] Hy het vroeër alkohol gedrink. [88] Hy woon uiteenlopend in Rathmines, 'n voorstad van Dublin, ook in Marokko en die Verenigde Koninkryk. [89] Volgens sy vrou is Redouane heel waarskynlik in Marokko radikaliseer. Later het die egpaar in die VK gebly op 'n EU -verblyfkaart waar hulle 'n dogter gehad het in 2015. Die egpaar het in 2016 geskei. [90] Ten tyde van die aanval het hy in Dagenham, Oos -Londen, gewoon.

Youssef Zaghba Edit

Zaghba (gebore 1995 in Fez, Marokko [6]) was ten tyde van die aanval in die ooste van Londen, waar hy in 'n kitskoswinkel gewerk het. Hy het ook by 'n Islamitiese televisiekanaal in Londen gewerk. [91] Zaghba is gebore uit 'n Marokkaanse Moslemvader en 'n Italiaanse Katolieke Christenmoeder wat hom tot Islam bekeer het toe sy getroud was. [92] Zaghba het 'n dubbele Marokkaanse en Italiaanse nasionaliteit. Toe sy ouers skei, is hy saam met sy ma na Italië. In 2016 is Zaghba op die Bologna Guglielmo Marconi-lughawe gestop deur Italiaanse beamptes wat ISIS-verwante materiaal op sy selfoon gevind het. [93] Italiaanse owerhede het gesê dat Zaghba deurlopend in Italië gemonitor is en dat die Verenigde Koninkryk oor hom ingelig is. Giuseppe Amato, 'n Italiaanse aanklaer, het gesê: "Ons het ons bes gedoen. Ons kon net [Zaghba] monitor en toesig hou en 'n brief aan die Britse owerhede stuur, dit is al wat ons kon doen en ons het dit gedoen. Sedert hy na Londen verhuis het, het hy gekom af en toe terug na Italië vir 'n totaal van 10 dae. En gedurende die tien dae het ons hom nooit uit ons oog laat nie. " [94]

Volgens Die New York Times, het die Italiaanse tak van Al-Muhajiroun Butt aan Zaghba voorgestel. [95]

Op die oggend van 4 Junie het die polisie 12 arrestasies gemaak na aanvalle op woonstelle in die Barking -gebied in die ooste van Londen, waar een van die aanvallers gewoon het [96] terwyl beheerde ontploffings tydens die aanvalle uitgevoer is. [97] Diegene wat aangehou is, was onder meer vyf mans tussen 27 en 55 jaar oud, in hegtenis geneem op een adres in Barking, en ses vroue tussen 19 en 60 jaar oud, in hegtenis geneem by 'n aparte Barking -adres. Een van die mans wat gearresteer is, is daarna sonder aanklag vrygelaat. Vier eiendomme is deursoek, waaronder twee in Newham, benewens die twee in Barking. [98] Daar is vroegoggend op 5 Junie verdere klopjagte en arrestasies op eiendomme in Newham en Barking gedoen. [99] Op 6 Junie is 'n man in Barking in hegtenis geneem, en die volgende dag in Ilford. [100] Teen 16 Junie is al die gearresteerdes sonder aanklag vrygelaat. [101]

Op 7 Mei 2019 het 'n geregtelike doodsondersoek in die Old Bailey in Londen geopen. Regter Mark Lucraft QC, hoof -lykskouer van Engeland en Wallis, was die voorsitter, en mense wat met die dooies verband hou, het rekenskap gegee van wat gebeur het en wie hulle verloor het. [102] [103] Die geregtelike doodsondersoek het op 16 Julie 2019 tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat al drie aanvallers wettig vermoor is. [104]

Eerste minister Theresa May het teruggekeer na Downingstraat om haar te beywer vir die komende algemene verkiesing. [105] May, die oggend na die aanval, het gesê dat die voorval as terrorisme behandel word, [16] [20] en dat die onlangse terreuraanvalle in die Verenigde Koninkryk "saamgevoeg is deur die enkele bose ideologie van Islamistiese ekstremisme" wat "is 'n verdraaiing van Islam". As deel van 'n vierpuntplan om terrorisme aan te pak, het sy 'n beroep gedoen op strenger internetregulasies om 'die ekstremiste hul veilige ruimtes aanlyn te ontneem' en gesê dat tegnologiefirmas tans nie genoeg doen nie. [106] [107] May se standpunt oor die rol van die internet en sosiale media in die moontlikheid van radikalisering is gekritiseer deur die Open Rights Group en die Internasionale Sentrum vir die Studie van Radikalisering en Politieke Geweld. [108] May is ook gekritiseer omdat sy die toespraak gebruik het om beleidsmaatreëls te beskryf om te reageer op die terreurbedreiging, wat volgens sommige in stryd was met haar belofte om die veldtog uit respek vir die slagoffers te onderbreek. [109] May het gesê dat die polisie en intelligensie -agentskappe 'n hersiening sal doen om vas te stel of die aanval voorkom kon word, [79] en op 28 Junie het minister van binnelandse sake, Amber Rudd, David Anderson QC opdrag gegee om onafhanklike versekering te gee van die hersieningswerk. . [110]

Die leier van die opposisie, Jeremy Corbyn, die liberaal -demokratiese leier Tim Farron en die burgemeester van Londen, Sadiq Khan, skryf almal op Twitter dat hul gedagtes by diegene wat geraak is, bedank het en dat hulle die nooddienste bedank. [111] [112] [113] Khan beskryf die aanval as 'doelbewus en lafhartig' en veroordeel dit 'ten sterkste'. [114] Hy het later gesê dat "die stad een van die veiligste ter wêreld is" en dat daar geen rede tot kommer is oor die toenemende polisieteenwoordigheid in die stad nie. [115]

Die Konserwatiewe Party, die Arbeidersparty, die Liberale Demokrate en die Skotse Nasionale Party het die verkiesingsveldtog vir 'n dag ná die aanval opgeskort. [116] [117] Die Britse Onafhanklikheidsparty het verkies om nie sy veldtogleier, Paul Nuttall, op te skort nie en het gesê dat dit 'is wat die ekstremiste wil hê'. [118] May het bevestig dat die algemene verkiesing op 8 Junie sou plaasvind. [118] Die BBC het 'n aantal politieke programme weens lugversending op 4 Junie gekanselleer of uitgestel. [119]

Harun Khan, die sekretaris -generaal van die Moslemraad van Brittanje, veroordeel ook die aanval. [120] [121] Meer as 130 imams het die aanvallers veroordeel, Islamitiese begrafnisse geweier en in 'n verklaring gesê dat die terroriste nie Islam verteenwoordig nie. [122] [123]

Meegevoel, uiting van skok, ondersteuning, solidariteit en simpatie is deur baie nasionale regerings en supranasionale liggame gebied. [a]

Drie George -medaljes is toegeken in verband met die aanvalle: Ignacio Echeverría (postuum), 'n burger, en twee aan polisiebeamptes, PC Charlie Guenigault van die Metropolitan Police en PC Wayne Marques van die Britse vervoerpolisie. Al drie is ernstig beseer toe hulle die terroriste regstreeks gekonfronteer het en probeer het om ander te red. [148] Rekenaars Liam Jones en Stewart Henderson, albei van die Metropolitaanse polisie, het die Britse Rykmedalje ontvang. [149] PC Leon McLeod van die Britse vervoerspolisie ontvang 'n Queen's Gallantry -medalje, [148] en rekenaars Tim Andrews, Sam Balfour, Lian Rae en Bartosz Tchorzewski ontvang die Queen's Police Medal for Distinguished Service. [149] Vier burgerlikes is bekroon met die Queen's Commendation for Bravery: Kirsty Boden (postuum), Ellen Gauntlett, Justin Jones en Florin Morariu. [150] Verpleegster Joy Ongcachuy, waarnemende speurder Zac Idun, bedryfsdirekteur van die Londense ambulansdiens, Paul Woodrow, administrateur van die NHS Engeland, Peter Boorman, dokter Malik Ramadhan en Claire Summers, is OBE's toegeken vir verskillende reaksies op die aanvalle, die behandeling van slagoffers en skakeling met hul gesinne, en ondersoeke wat daarmee verband hou. [151] [149]


Inhoud

Strategiese bombardement tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het lugaanvalle ingestel wat bedoel was om burgerlike teikens in paniek te kry, en het in 1918 gelei tot die samesmelting van die Britse weermag en vloot se lugdienste in die Royal Air Force (RAF). [24] Die eerste lugdienshoof, Hugh Trenchard, was onder die militêre strateë in die 1920's, net soos Giulio Douhet, wat lugoorlog as 'n nuwe manier beskou het om die dooiepunt van slootoorlog te oorkom. Onderskepping was byna onmoontlik, met vegvliegtuie nie vinniger as bomwerpers nie. Hulle siening (duidelik uitgedruk in 1932) was dat die bomwerper altyd sal deurkom, en dat die enigste verweer 'n afskrikwekkende bomwerperskorps is wat weerwraak kan pas. Voorspellings is gemaak dat 'n bomaanval offensief duisende sterftes en burgerlike histerie tot kapitulasie sou veroorsaak. Wydverspreide pasifisme na die gruwels van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het egter bygedra tot 'n huiwering om hulpbronne te verskaf. [25]

Ontwikkeling van lugstrategieë

Duitsland is 'n militêre lugmag verbied deur die 1919 -Verdrag van Versailles, en daarom is lugpersoneel opgelei deur middel van burgerlike en sportvlieg. Na 'n memorandum van 1923 het die Deutsche Luft Hansa -lugredery ontwerpe ontwikkel vir vliegtuie soos die Junkers Ju 52, wat passasiers en vrag kan vervoer, maar ook maklik in 'n bomwerpster aangepas kan word. In 1926 begin die geheime Lipetsk vegvlieënierskool. [26] Erhard Milch het 'n vinnige uitbreiding georganiseer, en na die Nazi -magsoorname in 1933 het sy ondergeskikte Robert Knauss 'n afskriktheorie geformuleer waarin Douhet se idees en Tirpitz se "risiko -teorie" ingesluit is. Dit het 'n vloot swaar bomwerpers voorgestel om 'n voorkomende aanval deur Frankryk en Pole af te weer voordat Duitsland ten volle kon heroprig. [27] 'n Oorlogspeletjie van 1933–34 dui op 'n behoefte aan vegters en beskerming teen vliegtuie sowel as bomwerpers. Op 1 Maart 1935 is die Luftwaffe formeel aangekondig, met Walther Wever as stafhoof. Die Luftwaffe -doktrine van 1935 vir "Conduct of Air War" (Luftkriegführung) stel lugmag binne die algehele militêre strategie, met kritieke take om (plaaslike en tydelike) lug superioriteit te bereik en ondersteuning van die slagveld vir weermag- en vlootmagte te bied. Strategiese bombardering van nywerhede en vervoer kan deurslaggewende opsies op lang termyn wees, afhangend van geleenthede of voorbereidings deur die weermag en die vloot. Dit kan gebruik word om 'n dooiepunt te oorkom, of gebruik word wanneer slegs die vernietiging van die vyand se ekonomie afdoende sou wees. [28] [29] Die lys het bomaanvalle van burgers uitgesluit om huise te vernietig of die moraal te ondermyn, aangesien dit as 'n vermorsing van strategiese inspanning beskou word, maar die leerstelling het wraakaanvalle toegelaat as Duitse burgerlikes gebombardeer word. 'N Hersiene uitgawe is in 1940 uitgereik, en die voortgesette sentrale beginsel van die Luftwaffe -leerstelling was dat die vernietiging van vyandelike weermagte van primêre belang was. [30]

Die RAF het op Luftwaffe se ontwikkelinge gereageer met sy uitbreidingsplan A van 1934, en in 1936 is dit herstruktureer in Bomber Command, Coastal Command, Training Command en Fighter Command. Die laaste was onder Hugh Dowding, wat die leerstelling gekant was dat bomwerpers onstuitbaar was: die uitvinding van radar op daardie tydstip kon vroeë opsporing moontlik maak, en prototipe vegvliegtuie was aansienlik vinniger. Prioriteite is betwis, maar in Desember 1937 het die minister, verantwoordelik vir die koördinering van die verdediging, sir Thomas Inskip, saam met Dowding gesê: "Die rol van ons lugmag is nie 'n vroeë uitklophou nie", maar eerder "om te verhoed dat die Duitsers ons uitsteek "en vegvliegtuie was net so nodig soos bomwerpers. [31] [32]

Die Spaanse burgeroorlog het die Luftwaffe Condor Legion die geleentheid gebied om luggevegstaktieke met hul nuwe vliegtuie te toets. Wolfram von Richthofen het 'n eksponent geword van lugmag wat grondondersteuning aan ander dienste bied. [33] Die moeilikheid om doelwitte akkuraat te tref, het Ernst Udet gevra dat alle nuwe bomwerpers bomduikers moet wees, en het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van die Knickebein -stelsel vir navigasie in die nag. Voorrang is gegee aan die vervaardiging van groot getalle kleiner vliegtuie, en planne vir 'n langafstand, viermotorige strategiese bomwerper is vertraag. [24] [34]

Eerste stadiums van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Wysig

In die vroeë stadiums van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was suksesvolle Duitse invalle op die vasteland, daartoe bygedra deur die lugmag van die Luftwaffe, wat taktiese lug superioriteit met groot doeltreffendheid kon vestig. Die spoed waarmee Duitse magte die meeste van die verdedigende leërs in Noorweë vroeg in 1940 verslaan het, het 'n beduidende politieke krisis in Brittanje veroorsaak. Vroeg in Mei 1940 het die Noorweë -debat die geskiktheid vir die amp van die Britse premier Neville Chamberlain bevraagteken. Op 10 Mei, dieselfde dag as Winston Churchill die Britse premier geword het, het die Duitsers die Slag van Frankryk begin met 'n aggressiewe inval in die Franse gebied. RAF Fighter Command was desperaat kort vir opgeleide vlieëniers en vliegtuie. Churchill het vegvliegtuie, die lugkomponent van die Britse ekspedisiemag, gestuur om operasies in Frankryk te ondersteun, [35] waar die RAF groot verliese gely het. Dit was ondanks die besware van sy bevelvoerder Hugh Dowding dat die afwyking van sy magte die verdediging van die huis onder krag sou laat. [36]

Na die ontruiming van Britse en Franse soldate uit Duinkerken en die Franse oorgawe op 22 Junie 1940, fokus Hitler veral op die moontlikheid om die Sowjetunie binne te val. [37] Hy het geglo dat die Britte, verslaan op die vasteland en sonder Europese bondgenote, vinnig regkom. [38] Die Duitsers was so oortuig van 'n dreigende wapenstilstand dat hulle begin het met die bou van straatversierings vir die tuiskomsparades van oorwinnende troepe. [39] Alhoewel die Britse minister van buitelandse sake, Lord Halifax, en sekere elemente van die Britse publiek 'n onderhandelde vrede met 'n opkomende Duitsland voorgestaan ​​het, weier Churchill en 'n meerderheid van sy kabinet om 'n wapenstilstand te oorweeg. [40] In plaas daarvan gebruik Churchill sy vaardige retoriek om die openbare mening teen kapitulasie te verhard en die Britte voor te berei op 'n lang oorlog.

Die Slag om Brittanje het die ongewone onderskeid dat dit sy naam gekry het voordat dit geveg is. Die naam is afgelei van die Dit was hul beste uur toespraak gelewer deur Winston Churchill in die Laerhuis op 18 Junie, meer as drie weke voor die algemeen aanvaarde datum vir die begin van die geveg:

. Wat generaal Weygand die Slag van Frankryk genoem het, is verby. Ek verwag dat die stryd om Brittanje op die punt staan ​​om te begin. Op hierdie stryd hang die voortbestaan ​​van die Christelike beskawing af. Daarop hang ons eie Britse lewe en die lang kontinuïteit van ons instellings en ons ryk af. Die hele woede en mag van die vyand moet baie gou op ons gedraai word. Hitler weet dat hy ons op hierdie eiland sal moet breek of die oorlog moet verloor. As ons teen hom kan opstaan, is die hele Europa moontlik vry en kan die lewe van die wêreld na breë, sonligte hoogtes beweeg. Maar as ons misluk, sal die hele wêreld, insluitend die Verenigde State, insluitend alles wat ons geken en versorg het, in die afgrond van 'n nuwe donker tydperk sink, wat meer sinister en miskien meer uitgerek word deur die ligte van 'n verdraaide wetenskap. Laat ons ons dus toewy aan ons pligte, en ons moet so geduldig wees dat, as die Britse Ryk en sy Statebond duisend jaar duur, mense steeds sal sê: "Dit was hul beste uur". [23] [41] [42]

Duitse doelwitte en voorskrifte Redigeer

From the outset of his rise to power, Adolf Hitler expressed admiration for Britain, and throughout the Battle period he sought neutrality or a peace treaty with Britain. [43] In a secret conference on 23 May 1939, Hitler set out his rather contradictory strategy that an attack on Poland was essential and "will only be successful if the Western Powers keep out of it. If this is impossible, then it will be better to attack in the West and to settle Poland at the same time" with a surprise attack. "If Holland and Belgium are successfully occupied and held, and if France is also defeated, the fundamental conditions for a successful war against England will have been secured. England can then be blockaded from Western France at close quarters by the Air Force, while the Navy with its submarines extend the range of the blockade." [44] [45]

When war commenced, Hitler and the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or "High Command of the Armed Forces") issued a series of Directives ordering, planning and stating strategic objectives. "Directive No. 1 for the Conduct of the War", dated 31 August 1939, instructed the invasion of Poland on 1 September as planned. Potentially, Luftwaffe "operations against England" were to "dislocate English imports, the armaments industry, and the transport of troops to France. Any favourable opportunity of an effective attack on concentrated units of the English Navy, particularly on battleships or aircraft carriers, will be exploited. The decision regarding attacks on London is reserved to me. Attacks on the English homeland are to be prepared, bearing in mind that inconclusive results with insufficient forces are to be avoided in all circumstances." [46] [47] Both France and the UK declared war on Germany on 9 October, Hitler's "Directive No. 6" planned the offensive to defeat these allies and "win as much territory as possible in the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France to serve as a base for the successful prosecution of the air and sea war against England". [48] On 29 November, OKW "Directive No. 9 – Instructions For Warfare Against The Economy Of The Enemy" stated that once this coastline had been secured, the Luftwaffe together with the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) was to blockade UK ports with sea mines. They were to attack shipping and warships and make air attacks on shore installations and industrial production. This directive remained in force in the first phase of the Battle of Britain. [49] [50] It was reinforced on 24 May during the Battle of France by "Directive No. 13", which authorised the Luftwaffe "to attack the English homeland in the fullest manner, as soon as sufficient forces are available. This attack will be opened by an annihilating reprisal for English attacks on the Ruhr Basin." [51]

By the end of June 1940, Germany had defeated Britain's allies on the continent, and on 30 June the OKW Chief of Staff, Alfred Jodl, issued his review of options to increase pressure on Britain to agree to a negotiated peace. The first priority was to eliminate the RAF and gain air supremacy. Intensified air attacks against shipping and the economy could affect food supplies and civilian morale in the long term. Reprisal attacks of terror bombing had the potential to cause quicker capitulation, but the effect on morale was uncertain. On the same day, the Luftwaffe Commander-in-Chief, Hermann Göring issued his operational directive to destroy the RAF, thus protecting German industry, and also to block overseas supplies to Britain. [52] [53] The German Supreme Command argued over the practicality of these options.

In "Directive No. 16 – On preparations for a landing operation against England" on 16 July, [54] Hitler required readiness by mid-August for the possibility of an invasion he called Operation Sea Lion, unless the British agreed to negotiations. The Luftwaffe reported that it would be ready to launch its major attack early in August. The Kriegsmarine Commander-in-Chief, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, continued to highlight the impracticality of these plans and said sea invasion could not take place before early 1941. Hitler now argued that Britain was holding out in hope of assistance from Russia, and the Soviet Union was to be invaded by mid 1941. [55] Göring met his air fleet commanders, and on 24 July issued "Tasks and Goals" of firstly gaining air supremacy, secondly protecting invasion forces and attacking the Royal Navy's ships. Thirdly, they were to blockade imports, bombing harbours and stores of supplies. [56]

Hitler's "Directive No. 17 – For the conduct of air and sea warfare against England" issued on 1 August attempted to keep all the options open. The Luftwaffe's Adlertag campaign was to start around 5 August, subject to weather, with the aim of gaining air superiority over southern England as a necessary precondition of invasion, to give credibility to the threat and give Hitler the option of ordering the invasion. The intention was to incapacitate the RAF so much that the UK would feel open to air attack, and would begin peace negotiations. It was also to isolate the UK and damage war production, beginning an effective blockade. [57] Following severe Luftwaffe losses, Hitler agreed at a 14 September OKW conference that the air campaign was to intensify regardless of invasion plans. On 16 September, Göring gave the order for this change in strategy, [58] to the first independent strategic bombing campaign. [59]

Negotiated peace or neutrality Edit

Hitler's 1923 Mein Kampf mostly set out his hatreds: he only admired ordinary German World War I soldiers and Britain, which he saw as an ally against communism. In 1935 Hermann Göring welcomed news that Britain as a potential ally was rearming. In 1936 he promised assistance to defend the British Empire, asking only a free hand in Eastern Europe, and repeated this to Lord Halifax in 1937. That year, von Ribbentrop met Churchill with a similar proposal when rebuffed, he told Churchill that interference with German domination would mean war. To Hitler's great annoyance, all his diplomacy failed to stop Britain from declaring war when he invaded Poland. During the fall of France, he repeatedly discussed peace efforts with his generals. [43]

When Churchill came to power, there was still wide support for Halifax, who as Foreign Secretary openly argued for peace negotiations in the tradition of British diplomacy, to secure British independence without war. On 20 May, Halifax secretly requested a Swedish businessman to make contact with Göring to open negotiations. Shortly afterwards, in the May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis, Halifax argued for negotiations involving the Italians, but this was rejected by Churchill with majority support. An approach made through the Swedish ambassador on 22 June was reported to Hitler, making peace negotiations seem feasible. Throughout July, as the battle started, the Germans made wider attempts to find a diplomatic solution. [60] On 2 July, the day the armed forces were asked to start preliminary planning for an invasion, Hitler got von Ribbentrop to draft a speech offering peace negotiations. On 19 July Hitler made this speech to the German Parliament in Berlin, appealing "to reason and common sense", and said he could "see no reason why this war should go on". [61] His sombre conclusion was received in silence, but he did not suggest negotiations and this was effectively an ultimatum which was rejected by the British government. [62] [63] Halifax kept trying to arrange peace until he was sent to Washington in December as ambassador, [64] and in January 1941 Hitler expressed continued interest in negotiating peace with Britain. [65]

Blockade and siege Edit

A May 1939 planning exercise by Luftflotte 3 found that the Luftwaffe lacked the means to do much damage to Britain's war economy beyond laying naval mines. [66] The Head of Luftwaffe intelligence Joseph "Beppo" Schmid presented a report on 22 November 1939, stating that "Of all Germany's possible enemies, Britain is the most dangerous." [67] This "Proposal for the Conduct of Air Warfare" argued for a counter to the British blockade and said "Key is to paralyse the British trade". [49] Instead of the Wehrmacht attacking the French, the Luftwaffe with naval assistance was to block imports to Britain and attack seaports. "Should the enemy resort to terror measures—for example, to attack our towns in western Germany" they could retaliate by bombing industrial centres and London. Parts of this appeared on 29 November in "Directive No. 9" as future actions once the coast had been conquered. [50] On 24 May 1940 "Directive No. 13" authorised attacks on the blockade targets, as well as retaliation for RAF bombing of industrial targets in the Ruhr. [51]

After the defeat of France, the OKW felt they had won the war, and some more pressure would persuade Britain. On 30 June the OKW Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl issued his paper setting out options: the first was to increase attacks on shipping, economic targets and the RAF: air attacks and food shortages were expected to break morale and lead to capitulation. Destruction of the RAF was the first priority, and invasion would be a last resort. Göring's operational directive issued the same day ordered the destruction of the RAF to clear the way for attacks cutting off seaborne supplies to Britain. It made no mention of invasion. [53] [68]

Invasion plans Edit

In November 1939, the OKW reviewed the potential for an air- and seaborne invasion of Britain: the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) was faced with the threat the Royal Navy's larger Home Fleet posed to a crossing of the English Channel, and together with the German Army viewed control of airspace as a necessary precondition. The German navy thought air superiority alone was insufficient the German naval staff had already produced a study (in 1939) on the possibility of an invasion of Britain and concluded that it also required naval superiority. [69] The Luftwaffe said invasion could only be "the final act in an already victorious war." [70]

Hitler first discussed the idea of an invasion at a 21 May 1940 meeting with Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, who stressed the difficulties and his own preference for a blockade. OKW Chief of Staff Jodl's 30 June report described invasion as a last resort once the British economy had been damaged and the Luftwaffe had full air superiority. On 2 July, OKW requested preliminary plans. [18] [63] In Britain, Churchill described "the great invasion scare" as "serving a very useful purpose" by "keeping every man and woman tuned to a high pitch of readiness". [71] On 10 July he advised the War Cabinet that invasion could be ignored, as it "would be a most hazardous and suicidal operation". [72]

On 11 July Hitler agreed with Raeder that invasion would be a last resort, and the Luftwaffe advised that gaining air superiority would take 14 to 28 days. Hitler met his army chiefs, von Brauchitsch and Halder at the Berchtesgaden on 13 July where they presented detailed plans on the assumption that the navy would provide safe transport. [73] Von Brauchitsch and Halder were surprised that Hitler took no interest in the invasion plans, unlike his usual attitude toward military operations (Bishop "Battle of Britain" p105), but on 16 July he issued Directive No. 16 ordering preparations for Operation Sea Lion. [74]

The navy insisted on a narrow beachhead and an extended period for landing troops the army rejected these plans: the Luftwaffe could begin an air attack in August. Hitler held a meeting of his army and navy chiefs on 31 July. The navy said 22 September was the earliest possible date and proposed postponement until the following year, but Hitler preferred September. He then told von Brauchitsch and Halder that he would decide on the landing operation eight to fourteen days after the air attack began. On 1 August he issued Directive No. 17 for intensified air and sea warfare, to begin with Adlertag on or after 5 August subject to weather, keeping options open for negotiated peace or blockade and siege. [75]

Independent air attack Edit

Under the continuing influence of the 1935 "Conduct of the Air War" doctrine, the main focus of the Luftwaffe command (including Göring) was in concentrating attacks to destroy enemy armed forces on the battlefield, and "blitzkrieg" close air support of the army succeeded brilliantly. They reserved strategic bombing for a stalemate situation or revenge attacks, but doubted if this could be decisive on its own and regarded bombing civilians to destroy homes or undermine morale as a waste of strategic effort. [76] [77]

The defeat of France in June 1940 introduced the prospect for the first time of independent air action against Britain. A July Fliegercorps I paper asserted that Germany was by definition an air power: "Its chief weapon against England is the Air Force, then the Navy, followed by the landing forces and the Army." In 1940, the Luftwaffe would undertake a "strategic offensive . on its own and independent of the other services", according to an April 1944 German account of their military mission. Göring was convinced that strategic bombing could win objectives that were beyond the army and navy, and gain political advantages in the Third Reich for the Luftwaffe and himself. [78] He expected air warfare to decisively force Britain to negotiate, as all in the OKW hoped, and the Luftwaffe took little interest in planning to support an invasion. [79] [53]

The Luftwaffe faced a more capable opponent than any it had previously met: a sizeable, highly coordinated, well-supplied, modern air force.

Fighters Edit

The Luftwaffe's Messerschmitt Bf 109E and Bf 110C fought against the RAF's workhorse Hurricane Mk I and the less numerous Spitfire Mk I Hurricanes outnumbered Spitfires in RAF Fighter Command by about 2:1 when war broke out. [80] The Bf 109E had a better climb rate and was up to 40 mph faster in level flight than the Rotol (constant speed propeller) equipped Hurricane Mk I, depending on altitude. [81] The speed and climb disparity with the original non-Rotol Hurricane was even greater. By mid-1940, all RAF Spitfire and Hurricane fighter squadrons converted to 100 octane aviation fuel, [82] which allowed their Merlin engines to generate significantly more power and an approximately 30 mph increase in speed at low altitudes [83] [84] through the use of an Emergency Boost Override. [85] [86] [87] In September 1940, the more powerful Mk IIa series 1 Hurricanes started entering service in small numbers. [88] This version was capable of a maximum speed of 342 mph (550 km/h), some 20 mph more than the original (non-Rotol) Mk I, though it was still 15 to 20 mph slower than a Bf 109 (depending on altitude). [89]

The performance of the Spitfire over Dunkirk came as a surprise to the Jagdwaffe, although the German pilots retained a strong belief that the 109 was the superior fighter. [90] The British fighters were equipped with eight Browning .303 (7.7mm) machine guns, while most Bf 109Es had two 7.92mm machine guns supplemented by two 20mm cannons. [nb 9] The latter was much more effective than the .303 during the Battle it was not unknown for damaged German bombers to limp home with up to two hundred .303 hits. [91] At some altitudes, the Bf 109 could outclimb the British fighter. It could also engage in vertical-plane negative-g manoeuvres without the engine cutting out because its DB 601 engine used fuel injection this allowed the 109 to dive away from attackers more readily than the carburettor-equipped Merlin. On the other hand, the Bf 109E had a much larger turning circle than its two foes. [92] In general, though, as Alfred Price noted in The Spitfire Story:

. the differences between the Spitfire and the Me 109 in performance and handling were only marginal, and in a combat they were almost always surmounted by tactical considerations of which side had seen the other first, which had the advantage of sun, altitude, numbers, pilot ability, tactical situation, tactical co-ordination, amount of fuel remaining, etc. [93]

The Bf 109E was also used as a Jabo (jagdbomber, fighter-bomber)—the E-4/B and E-7 models could carry a 250 kg bomb underneath the fuselage, the later model arriving during the battle. The Bf 109, unlike the Stuka, could fight on equal terms with RAF fighters after releasing its ordnance. [94] [95]

At the start of the battle, the twin-engined Messerschmitt Bf 110C long-range Zerstörer ("Destroyer") was also expected to engage in air-to-air combat while escorting the Luftwaffe bomber fleet. Although the 110 was faster than the Hurricane and almost as fast as the Spitfire, its lack of manoeuvrability and acceleration meant that it was a failure as a long-range escort fighter. On 13 and 15 August, thirteen and thirty aircraft were lost, the equivalent of an entire Gruppe, and the type's worst losses during the campaign. [96] This trend continued with a further eight and fifteen lost on 16 and 17 August. [97]

The most successful role of the Bf 110 during the battle was as a Schnellbomber (fast bomber). The Bf 110 usually used a shallow dive to bomb the target and escape at high speed. [98] [99] One unit, Erprobungsgruppe 210 – initially formed as the service test unit (Erprobungskommando) for the emerging successor to the 110, the Me 210 – proved that the Bf 110 could still be used to good effect in attacking small or "pinpoint" targets. [98]

The RAF's Boulton Paul Defiant had some initial success over Dunkirk because of its resemblance to the Hurricane Luftwaffe fighters attacking from the rear were surprised by its unusual gun turret. [100] During the Battle of Britain, it proved hopelessly outclassed. For various reasons, the Defiant lacked any form of forward-firing armament, and the heavy turret and second crewman meant it could not outrun or outmanoeuvre either the Bf 109 or Bf 110. By the end of August, after disastrous losses, the aircraft was withdrawn from daylight service. [101] [102]

Bombers Edit

The Luftwaffe's primary bombers were the Heinkel He 111, Dornier Do 17, and Junkers Ju 88 for level bombing at medium to high altitudes, and the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka for dive-bombing tactics. The He 111 was used in greater numbers than the others during the conflict, and was better known, partly due to its distinctive wing shape. Each level bomber also had a few reconnaissance versions accompanying them that were used during the battle. [103]

Although it had been successful in previous Luftwaffe engagements, the Stuka suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Britain, particularly on 18 August, due to its slow speed and vulnerability to fighter interception after dive-bombing a target. As the losses went up along with their limited payload and range, Stuka units were largely removed from operations over England and diverted to concentrate on shipping instead until they were eventually re-deployed to the Eastern Front in 1941. For some raids, they were called back, such as on 13 September to attack Tangmere airfield. [104] [105] [106]

The remaining three bomber types differed in their capabilities the Dornier Do 17 was the slowest and had the smallest bomb load the Ju 88 was the fastest once its mainly external bomb load was dropped and the He 111 had the largest (internal) bomb load. [103] All three bomber types suffered heavy losses from the home-based British fighters, but the Ju 88 had significantly lower loss rates due to its greater speed and its ability to dive out of trouble (it was originally designed as a dive bomber). The German bombers required constant protection by the Luftwaffe's fighter force. German escorts were not sufficiently numerous. Bf 109Es were ordered to support more than 300–400 bombers on any given day. [107] Later in the conflict, when night bombing became more frequent, all three were used. Due to its smaller bomb load, the lighter Do 17 was used less than the He 111 and Ju 88 for this purpose.

On the British side, three bomber types were mostly used on night operations against targets such as factories, invasion ports and railway centres the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, the Handley-Page Hampden and the Vickers Wellington were classified as heavy bombers by the RAF, although the Hampden was a medium bomber comparable to the He 111. The twin-engined Bristol Blenheim and the obsolescent single-engined Fairey Battle were both light bombers the Blenheim was the most numerous of the aircraft equipping RAF Bomber Command and was used in attacks against shipping, ports, airfields and factories on the continent by day and by night. The Fairey Battle squadrons, which had suffered heavy losses in daylight attacks during the Battle of France, were brought up to strength with reserve aircraft and continued to operate at night in attacks against the invasion ports, until the Battle was withdrawn from UK front line service in October 1940. [108] [110]


Infused Water Recipes For Weight Loss

Simply drinking more water is already a great way to achieve weight loss. So if drinking infused water makes you drink more water then it can only be a good thing.

OK I want to drink more water and do that with infusion, what recipes are good for weight loss?

The truth is that there are so many different variations and you are only limited by your imagination. The best fruit infuser water bottle recipes usually happen by pure accident.

Best Fruit Infuser Recipe Ideas

If you just want some ideas to get your creative juices flowing, here are some combinations to get you started:

Rosemary + lemon + raspberry

Ginger root + lime + + basil

Watermelon + honeydew + mint

Hibiscus + orange + star anise

Cardamom + orange + cinnamon + cloves

Lime + mint + strawberry + cucumber


The London milkman, 1940

The photo pushed forward the idea of the stoic British continuing on with their normal lives.

The appearance of German bombers in the skies over London introduced a new weapon of terror and destruction in the arsenal of twentieth-century warfare. This concentrated direct bombing of industrial targets and civilian centers began on 7 September 1940, with heavy raids on London.

It was the beginning of the Blitz – a period of intense bombing of London and other cities in Great Britain that continued until the following May. For the next consecutive 57 days, London was bombed either during the day or night. Fires consumed many portions of the city.

The purpose was to demoralize the population and force the British to come to terms. The Blitz ended on May 11, 1941, when Hitler called off the raids in order to move his bombers east in preparation for Germany’s invasion of Russia.

The above photograph was taken on October 9th after a German aerial raid. Photographers stationed in London were amazed at the total destruction wrought by German bombers yet their pictures were routinely blocked by the censors who were anxious not to cause a panic and also not to let the Germans know exactly where their bombs had hit.

The photographer Fred Morley took the picture of a London milkman deliberately picking his way over the rubble. The only thing is that, in a way, the picture was staged. Morley first found a backdrop of firefighters struggling to contain a fire then he borrowed a milkman’s outfit and a craft of bottles.

He then got his assistant to pose among the ruins of a city street while the firefighters fought in the background. Morley’s thinking was that to circumvent censorship of demoralizing pictures of ruined streets, after more than a month of daily bombings, he should present things as an object lesson in the maxim “Keep calm and carry on”.

The photo pushed forward the idea of the stoic British continuing on with their normal lives. The censors felt the same way and it was published the very next day. The government made a point that daily life will go on as normal as possible, that defiance was picked up and carried through to every single person, not only in London but everywhere that those bombs fell.

Interesting facts:

  • By the end of the Blitz, around 30,000 Londoners would be left dead, with another 50,000 injured.
  • The British government censored the bombing pictures particularly because the British were actively using countermeasures to disrupt the German navigational beams, resulting in Luftwaffe planes regularly bombing the countryside instead of cities for a few months. Publishing results of German bombings in newspapers would alert the Germans that the countermeasures were working.

(Photo credit: Fred Morley / Getty Images. Original title: Delivery After Raid).


10 Things You Didn’t Know About Gin

Gin is one of my favorite spirits and I have spent the best part of my time over the past 10 years teaching people about its history, production, virtues and cocktails. I have spoken about the spirit at events such as the International Association of Culinary Professionals and Tales of the Cocktail. When my good friend Allen Katz first started to develop his own gin recipes, I jumped at the opportunity to help. He spent over a year perfecting his recipes and the result was two amazing and unique gins that are being produced in Brooklyn. I believe gin to be the quintessential cocktail spirit, and Allen’s work has inspired me to begin working on my own gin. Here are 10 things you might not know about the spirit, along with distillery tour information and a cocktail recipe:

1. Gin is for cocktails – not on its own
You can drink tequila and mescal as shots, and vodka is served chilled with food (zakuski) in its native land. Bourbon, rye and whiskey drinkers might add some ice or a splash of water. Gin is meant to be mixed, however, as the botanicals (herbs, spices etc.) come to life in cocktails and add complexity to the drink. This is why so many classic cocktails call for gin.

2. There are more classic cocktails made with gin than with any other spirit
Negroni, Ramos Gin Fizz, Martinez, Gin Rickey, Red Snapper, Tom Collins, White Lady, Hanky Panky, Clover Club, Alexander, French 75, Gimlet, Vesper, Singapore Sling, Silver Bronx, Pegu Club, Bee’s Knees, Southside. And that is just scratching the surface!

3. Holland made gin first

Gin is England’s national spirit and there are few things more English than a refreshing gin & tonic. Most of the most famous gins you see around the world hail from the UK, so it is forgivable to think that the spirit first came from here. The English actually discovered gin when they were fighting the Thirty Years’ War in the 17 th century in Holland and saw Dutch soldiers drinking Jenever to boost morale before heading into battle. The term “Dutch Courage” was born, and the English brought the idea of making and drinking gin back with them. It would take another 150 years before they would have their own version.

4. London dry gin is not always from London
Gin does not have the same geographical restrictions as spirits such as cognac, scotch or tequila. Only a tiny handful of London dry gins are actually made in the city. There are, however, 13 gins that have a “geographical indication.” The most famous of these is Plymouth gin, which has been made in Plymouth, England since 1793.

5. One man deserves recognition
Desmond Payne is currently the master distiller at Beefeater and has been there for more than 17 years. He formerly held the same position at Plymouth, giving him more experience making fine gin than anyone else. He also created Beefeater 24, which incorporates tea into the distillation process and is a great ingredient for punches.

6. A martini means gin
A martini consists of gin, dry vermouth and optional bitters. When the golden age of the martini was in full swing, most people in cocktail drinking nations had not yet tried vodka. During the era of the three-martini lunch, Smirnoff released a very clever campaign, “Vodka leaves you breathless,” that combined with the cool of James Bond to help vodka hijack gin’s place in the iconic drink.

7. Gin can be used for medicinal purposes
In 1269, the first major mention of juniper-based health-related tonics appeared in a Dutch publication. Ever since, gin has had a history of being used “for medicinal purposes.” The Royal Navy mixed gin with lime cordial to stop scurvy, and angostura settled the stomach at sea. Tonic water with quinine was anti-malarial, giving them a great excuse to drink more gin and tonics.

8. Gin is flavored vodka
The most usual production method for gin is to distill botanicals, such as juniper, coriander, citrus peel, cinnamon, almond or liquorice, with neutral grain alcohol. Making gin is like flavoring vodka, except that botanicals are always natural. A skilled gin distiller knows how to balance the botanical flavors to make a quality product.

9. The Philippines drinks the most gin
The global sale of the spirit is nearly 60 million cases, and almost half of this is consumed in the Philippines. The country drinks over 22 million cases of Ginebra San Miguel, and while this gin accounts for 43% of the gin market, most people outside the Philippines have never heard of it. Other big gin drinking nations are Spain — where gin and tonics are popular — the U.S and, of course, the UK.

10. Saying you don’t like gin is like saying you don’t like sauce
All gin uses juniper as its main ingredient. After that, however, there are very few limits to the hundreds of ingredients a distillery can use. Some gins have as few as three or four botanical flavors, while the Scottish gin Botanist has 31! The flavors in gin range from cucumber and rose (Hendricks) to lavender (Aviation) to lemongrass and black pepper (Bombay Sapphire East). No two gins are alike, making the spirit very diverse in flavor and exciting for the budding bartender.

Visit a gin distillery and learn more:
In the U.S – Visit the New York Distilling Company in Williamsburg and meet founder Allen Katz. Be sure to drink Commodore Perry’s Navy Strength gin in The Shanty, a lovely bar located next door.

In die UK – Visit the oldest working distillery in the world in Plymouth. The building has been around since 1430 as a monastery, and every drop of Plymouth Gin has been made there since 1793.

Finally, a recipe to enjoy at home:

The Last Word Cocktail (created circa. 1922 at the Detroit Athletics Club)


Amazon denies stories of workers peeing in bottles, receives a flood of evidence in return

Amazon is trying a new tactic in its endless PR battle against stories of its exhausting and exploitative working conditions: outright denial. It’s not working.

When replying to a tweet from Rep. Mark Pocan (D-WI) complaining about the company’s union-busting tactics and the fact that some of its workers are forced to “urinate in water bottles,” Amazon’s official Twitter account responded: “You don’t really believe the peeing in bottles thing, do you? If that were true, nobody would work for us.”

But people do believe these stories and for a very simple reason: there are numerous accounts of it happening, documented by employees and journalists around the world.

Indeed, after Amazon sent out its ill-judged tweet, reporters who cover the company’s labor practices practically lined up to soak the firm with evidence. These included English journalist James Bloodworth, whose 2018 book Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain documented his experience of low-paid work for companies including Amazon:

I was the person who found the pee in the bottle. Trust me, it happened. https://t.co/U76UlDRWSO

— James Bloodworth (@J_Bloodworth) March 25, 2021

Bloodworth’s book led to some of the most widely shared stories about Amazon workers being forced to pee in bottles to save time while meeting the company’s targets, but he’s far from the only one to document this exact example of poor working conditions.

Here’s Will Evans from The Center of Investigative Reporting:

Peeing at Amazon - or not being able to - is an actual thing. Here's what workers told me. https://t.co/D0lp4pdQ5D https://t.co/eqFiS8WZbG pic.twitter.com/RVLOYezGvE

— Will Evans (@willCIR) March 25, 2021

And Lauren Kaori Gurley from Motherboard. (Gurley also wrote a story with photographic evidence, including numerous examples from the subreddit for Amazon delivery drivers.)

As a labor reporter who covers Amazon extensively. I can say Amazon delivery drivers not having a time or place to pee is one of the most universal concerns I hear about https://t.co/pG81MDf5TU pic.twitter.com/h3pGhOok1y

— Lauren Kaori Gurley (@LaurenKGurley) March 25, 2021

And Ken Bensinger from BuzzFeed News:

Amazon claims its workers don't pee in bottles defenders say it's an urban legend. But these photos sent to me by a former driver for a former @amazon contractor called Synctruck in a California facility suggest strongly otherwise. https://t.co/hp4zCqOxRO pic.twitter.com/StHNvV9B1x

— Ken Bensinger (@kenbensinger) March 25, 2021

And Alex Press from Jacobin, who shares a much grimmer anecdote of an Amazon worker who suffered a seizure in one of the company’s facilities:

my first response to this was to laugh because it’s such a ridiculous tweet but honestly, this is infuriating. here are the type of texts Amazon workers send me https://t.co/7hW5miBob8 pic.twitter.com/bENxlqzsPa

— Alex Press (@alexnpress) March 25, 2021

The Intercept added yet more evidence to the mounting case against Amazon with a new report published on Thursday detailing not only more cases of drivers urinating into bottles, but also resorting to defecating into bags. And the most damning reveal is that Amazon was made aware of this because it began reprimanding employees for the behavior when the bottles and bags were left inside Amazon delivery vehicles, The Intercept verslae.

“We’ve noticed an uptick recently of all kinds of unsanitary garbage being left inside bags: used masks, gloves, bottles of urine,” reads an email from an Amazon logistics manager provided to The Intercept by a Pittsburgh area employee. “By scanning the QR code on the bag, we can easily identify the DA who was in possession of the bag last. These behaviors are unacceptable, and will result in Tier 1 Infractions going forward. Please communicate this message to your drivers. I know if may seem obvious, or like something you shouldn’t need to coach, but please be explicit when communicating the message that they CANNOT poop, or leave bottles of urine inside bags.”

The manager also complains in the email that this the incident in question was the “3rd occasion in the last 2 months” and tries to express some sympathy that delivery drivers have struggled to find bathrooms “especially during Covid.” Maar The Intercept goes on to quote additional former Amazon warehouse and delivery employees who say that even when management became aware of these incidents, the package quotas and other workplace metrics did not ease and in many cases only increased over time.

Indeed, although Amazon is trying to refute stories of “peeing in bottles” that have become shorthand for the company’s poor working conditions, they’re only the tip of the iceberg.

Other evidence includes the high injury rates in Amazon warehouses (7.7 serious injuries per 100 employees) employees dying from COVID-19 after complaints the company wasn’t doing enough to mitigate risks from the virus widespread union-busting production targets that treat humans like robots and gruesome anecdotes like the story of the Amazon worker who died from a heart attack and who, say colleagues, was left on the work floor for 20 minutes before receiving treatment.

Amazon denied this last story, of course, saying it responded to the man’s collapse “within minutes.” But Amazon has proven its willingness to edit reality. And if the company is happy to suggest its workers never pee in bottles despite many accounts to the contrary, it’s hard to take the company’s “truth” seriously.

Update March 25th, 5:43PM ET: Added information from The Intercept’s report on Thursday detailing further evidence of Amazon employees forced to use the restroom while on shift without taking a break and information proving Amazon managers were aware this was happening.


This Chic Water Bottle Is the Most Complimented Thing I Own

Out of everything in my possession, the one item that receives the most compliments is my water bottle. This is not an exaggeration. At first, when strangers started coming up to me in coffee shops asking where I found my water bottle, I thought it was a fluke. After all, coffee-loving hipsters like funky things. But then the compliments continued pouring in at the supermarket, in spin class, even on the train. (For the record, I’m grateful it distracts from my sweaty post-cycling appearance.) 

Let me be straight: The Lund London Skittle Bottle is like no water bottle you’ve seen before. With its geometric shape and minimalist design, the bottle looks like it belongs in a modern art museum (or at least an Ikea), not in a purse. When it was gifted to me, I thought it was a fancy decoration for my nightstand. Then the bright nob top twisted off, and I realized that it was actually a water bottle. A really beautiful water bottle. 

I know it might seem weird to rejoice over something whose sole purpose is to carry drinks, but I have a hypothesis as to why everybody (myself included) loves it. The majority of water bottles are dull, serving a purpose without bringing much pleasure mine, on the other hand, does both. Honestly, it has more personality and pizazz than most humans. When I go out and have this baby with me, I feel more cool and confident. It sounds comical, but it’s true! 

The stainless steel bottle comes in several different color varieties, (after all, Skittle is in its name) each as chic as the next. The colors are bright without being gaudy and give your desk, table, or whatever the bottle’s set on an energizing pop of brightness. Mine is mint and red others are dark gray and turquoise, violet and seafoam, and millennial pink and blue. 

Usually, with beauty, there comes some blemishes. Those suckers must be hidden away with this bottle, because it’s been a year and I have zero complaints. The stainless steel and insulated interior keeps my water chilly all day, the triangular and rounded design somehow seems like it’s an ergonomic miracle for my hand, and even though I’ve dropped this thing anywhere and everywhere you can imagine, it hasn’t chipped once.

By no means am I a water bottle connoisseur, but if the water bottle experts of this world got together and tapped me for my thoughts, I would give the Lund London Skittle Bottle a perfect score.