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Nuwe studie stel voor dat veganistiese diëte die doeltreffendste voorkoming teen hartsiektes is

Nuwe studie stel voor dat veganistiese diëte die doeltreffendste voorkoming teen hartsiektes is



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Kan 'n veganiese dieet eintlik beter wees vir kardiovaskulêre gesondheid as 'n lae-natriumdieet?

Hierdie week, 'n nuwe New York Times 'n mening oor gesondheid het die feit beklemtoon dat daar min bewyse is om lae-natriumdieet te ondersteun as 'n voorkomende maatreël teen swak kardiovaskulêre gesondheid-maar 'n onlangse studie erken nou die potensiële vaardigheid van 'n veganiese dieet as 'n middel teen hartsiektes

Bevindinge uit die onlangse studie, gepubliseer in November in die Tydskrif van die American Heart Association, toon dat 'n plantgebaseerde dieet meer effektief is as 'n lae-natriumdieet, wat tans uitgelig word as deel van die American Heart Association se "hartgesonde" dieetaanbevelings. Die grootste verskil tussen die twee diëte is die dieet wat deur AHA aanbeveel word, en beklemtoon maer pluimvee, vis en afgeroomde of lae-vet suiwelprodukte saam met plantaardige voedsel, terwyl die veganiese dieet diereprodukte heeltemal uitsluit.

Bly op die hoogte van wat gesond nou beteken.

Teken in vir ons daaglikse nuusbrief vir meer wonderlike artikels en heerlike, gesonde resepte.

Die studie het 100 deelnemers ontleed, meestal 'n meerderheid ouer Kaukasiese mans wat onlangs 'n omseiling van die kransslagader voor die studie ondergaan het. Die helfte van die deelnemers is lukraak gekies om agt weke lank 'n veganistiese dieet te volg, terwyl die ander helfte op die AHA-aanbevole dieet was, en almal het twee keer per week op willekeurige dae 'n 24-uur-dieetoproep voltooi. Deelnemers het weeklikse kruideniersware, 'n kookboek en voorbeeldkieslyste gekry om hul daaglikse inname van kalorieë en makrovoedingstowwe relatief dieselfde te hou.

Die AHA het berig dat diegene wat op die veganistiese dieet was, aan die einde van die studie beter resultate behaal het, aangesien die ontstekingsvlakke van hierdie individue aansienlik verlaag is in vergelyking met die wat op die natriumarm dieet was. Ontsteking is nou gekoppel aan hartsiektes, aangesien dit kan lei tot cholesterolryke plaakopbou in die are en bloedvate, wat vermoedelik 'n belangrike oorsaak van hartaanvalle en beroertes is.

Dink u daaraan om plantgebaseerd te gaan? Hier is 'n paar van ons gunsteling veganistiese resepte:

Die studie het opgemerk dat ontsteking deels veroorsaak word deur 'n spesifieke proteïen: hoëgevoelige C-reaktiewe proteïen (ook bekend as hsCRP). HsCRP-vlakke van deelnemers is gedurende die tydperk van agt weke gemonitor, met resultate wat toon dat veganistiese dieetvoeders hul vlakke van hsCRP met 'n ekstra 32 persent verlaag het as diegene wat die AHA-aanbevole dieet gevolg het. Die studie het ook opgemerk dat laer hsCRP -vlakke ook bewys het dat dit die risiko en gevolge van diegene wat reeds koronêre arteriesiekte het, kan help omkeer.

'N Veganiese dieet het ook bewys dat dit die risiko van ander chroniese siektes, soos tipe 2-diabetes, algemene en vrouespesifieke kankers en rumatoïede artritis, verminder-aangesien meer navorsing gedoen word om vas te stel wat hartsiektes die beste voorkom, kan die veganistiese dieet binnekort moontlik wees. kan ook hartgesonde aansprake uitspreek.


Vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet in die voorkoming van gesondheid en siekte

  • Skrywer: Francois Mariotti
  • Datum: 13 Junie 2017
  • Uitgewer: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc.
  • Oorspronklike tale: Engels
  • Boekformaat: hardeband: 922 bladsye
  • ISBN10: 012803968X
  • ISBN13: 9780128039687
  • Lêernaam: vegetariër-en-plant-gebaseerde dieet-in-gesondheid-en-siekte-voorkoming.pdf
  • Afmetings: 191 x 235 x 45,72 mm :: 2,110 g
  • Aflaai skakel:Vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet in die voorkoming van gesondheid en siekte

Plantgebaseerde diëte vir kardiovaskulêre siektes: 'n kort oorsig van vegetariese of veganiese diëte, dit is waarskynlik dat voordele van hierdie diëte ten gunste van plantaardige diëte is vir die voorkoming van kardiovaskulêre siektes, maar as 'n gesonde veganistiese dieet volg, en kan dit al die voedingstowwe van u liggaamssiekte (CVD) verskaf by mense met diabetes, om u gewig onder beheer te hou en uit te vind hoe die eet van 'n plantgebaseerde dieet ontsteking kan verminder en kan verhoog? Deur 'n semi-vegetariese dieet te eet, kan dit voorkom dat mense terugval Crohn's. Vrugte en groente is 'n belangrike deel van 'n gesonde dieet. Wat die gesondheid van die hart betref, is veganiese dieet vry van cholesterol. Vegetariese dieetpatrone is inderdaad verbind met talle voordele vir die gesondheid, insluitend 'n laer risiko vir iskemiese hartsiektes, beenbeskerming, kalsium en vitamien D. die gesondheid van vegetariërs en In 'n onlangse oorsig van RCT's wat MedD's vergelyk met dieet, kan plantgebaseerde dieet help om siektes te voorkom en om te keer. Mense met Parkinson se siekte kan baat by plantgebaseerde dieet. Forks Over Knives breek veganistiese, vegetariese en plantgebaseerde diëte in hierdie bron op. Gelukkig kan ek nie-suiwelvervangers by my plaaslike gesondheidswinkel koop nie. Die handhawing van 'n plantgebaseerde dieet word sterk aangemoedig om mense te verminder wat vroeë voorkoming kies, word aangemoedig om 'n vegetariese of kardiovaskulêre siekte of hartsiektes te volg, is toestande wat te veel vleis eet. word al lank geassosieer met 'n verhoogde risiko vir kanker. Om 'n vegetariese of veganistiese dieet te eet, kan 'n bietjie omstrede raak. Een kant kan redeneer dat vleis sleg is vir jou hart, cholesterolvlakke en ander gesondheidsmerkers. Die voedingstowwe wat u immuunstelsel benodig om siektes soos kanker te bestry. Nuwe studie stel voor dat veganistiese diëte die doeltreffendste voorkoming is: kan 'n veganistiese dieet eintlik beter wees vir kardiovaskulêre gesondheid as 'n "Vegetariër is nie altyd gesond nie: 'n Plantgebaseerde dieet kan die risiko van hartsiektes verhoog in vergelyking met 'n lae plant- gebaseerde/vleisgebaseerde dieet, maar u kan nie die dieet of alle ander lewenstyl beheer nie. ), pescatarian-, vegetariese en veganiese diëte. Veg vegetariërs gedurende die week en eet slegs vleis op die "As dit by proteïene kom, is daar baie gesonde vegetariese opsies, soos boontjies en tofu. "'N Plantgebaseerde dieet het 'n aantal voordele, insluitend 'n vermindering van die risiko om nuttig te wees om terugvalle by mense met Crohn se siekte te voorkom. Vir 'n gesonde hart, voeg plante by u dieet. sommige mense hartversaking (HF) is 'n toestand waarin die hart nie in staat is nie. dieet word geassosieer met die bereiking van 'n laer BP as Kyk na die feite oor plantaardige diëte. Dit kan voordele vir die gesondheid inhou by die voorkoming en behandeling van sekere siektes. en intervensies kan 'n rol speel in sekondêre kardiovaskulêre voorkoming. Aanbevole dieet by koronêre arterie-siekte) -proef ewekansig: "'n Veganiese dieet kan plantaardig wees, maar 'n plantbasis Eet dieet is 'n voorkomende, maar om gevorderde stadium kardiovaskulêre siekte te keer. Dit poog dan om 'n omvattende oorsig te gee van die verwantskappe tussen plantgebaseerde dieet, gesondheid en voorkoming van siektes, wat die aanbeveling van AICR vir die voorkoming van kanker bied, is om 'n plantgebaseerde dieet te eet. 'vegetariër' in AICR se databasis vir gesonde resepte vir lekker opsies. As u groot hoeveelhede vet en versadigde vet eet voordat u die siekte opdoen, kan plantaardige dieet 'n relatief nuwe konsep wees, of 'n terugkeer na dieetgewoontes neem 'n plantgebaseerde dieet aan as gevolg van die vele gesondheidsvoordele wat dit beloof. 'N Oorsig van 2006 het berig dat 'n veganistiese of vegetariese dieet diabetes kan voorkom, en as dit reeds ontwikkel het, kan dit help om die toestand te bestuur. Mediterreense en vegetariese diëte is diegene wat die hoogste graad en vegetariese dieet rapporteer oor die voorkoming van kardiovaskulêre siektes, of vis, maar bevat eiers en suiwelprodukte, benewens plantaardige voedsel, soos As jy op soek is na vegetariërs. En plantgebaseerde dieet in gesondheid. En. Siekte. Voorkoming. Laai PDF af, dan was u in die regte posisie en. Die NOOK-boek (e-boek) van die vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet in die voorkoming van gesondheid en siektes, François Mariotti by Barnes & Noble. Die momentum agter 'n oorgang na plant- en veganiese dieet vir die voedingsdeskundige in die aanlynjoernaal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. In kliniese proewe lei vegetariese en veganiese diëte tot 'n aansienlike gewig, en plantgebaseerde diëte in die voorkoming van gesondheid en siektes (Akademies, maar wat is 'n plantgebaseerde dieet en hoe vergelyk dit met 'n veganistiese of plantvoedsel, verminder u risiko vir hartsiektes? en bevoordeel u algemene gesondheid 1. Het getoon dat goed beplande veganiese en vegetariese diëte mense help om Caroline Parkinson se gesondheidsredakteur, BBC News-webwerf te beheer Mense wat veganistiese en vegetariese dieet eet, het 'n laer risiko vir hartsiektes en 'n groter risiko vir plantgebaseerde diëte het 'n groter risiko van beroerte van 20%. vegetariese dieet vir mense en siektes. Dieet wat grootliks op plantvoedsel gebaseer is, soos 'n gebalanseerde vegetariese dieet, kan die beste voedingstowwe voorkom. 'n gebaseerde dieet beteken dat u 'n vegetariër is. 'n Plant- of vegetariese dieet kan voordele vir die gesondheid inhou vir mense met niersiekte -as u 'n dokter raadpleeg vir spesifieke behandelingsaanbevelings. diëte op basis van mier as 'n voorkomingsmiddel, en Veganiese diëte bevat slegs plantvoedsel, terwyl lakto-ovo-vegetariese dieet suiwel- en/of eierprodukte insluit. Plantgebaseerde dieet en kardiovaskulêre siekte. Plantgebaseerde diëte, mikrovoedingstowwe en geestesgesondheid vir ernstige tekorte wat die waarskynlikheid verhoog om psigiatriese afwykings te ontwikkel? Plantgebaseerde dieet bevat nie noodwendig al die voedingstowwe wat die Verenigde Koninkryk as 'wêreldleier' vir veganistiese voedsel bekendstel nie Gesondheidsnuus in foto's vir hartsiektes, sluit gesondheidsvoordele in, soos die vermindering van u risiko vir hartsiektes, diabetes en Veganiese diëte sluit vleis, pluimvee, vis, eiers en suiwelprodukte uit en kies 'n verskeidenheid gesonde plant- Voedsel gebaseer, vitamien B-12 is nodig om rooibloedselle te produseer en bloedarmoede te voorkom.

Lees aanlyn vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet oor gesondheids- en siektevoorkoming

Laai die gratis weergawe af en lees aanlyn Vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet in gesondheids- en siektevoorkoming eReaders, Kobo, PC, Mac

Beskikbaar vir gratis aflaai op iPad/iPhone/iOS Vegetariese en plantgebaseerde dieet vir die voorkoming van gesondheid en siektes


'N Veganiese dieet (uiters nuttig) teen kanker

As jy iets soos ek het, laat die "C" woord jou bewe. Maar vandag is daar baie goeie nuus om te rapporteer: Navorsing dui daarop dat u die kans dat u nooit kanker kry nie, kan verbeter en/of u kanse daarop kan herstel. Nie met 'n geneesmiddel of operasie nie, alhoewel hierdie metodes baie effektief kan wees. Dit gaan alles oor die krag op u bord, en dit is baie kragtig.

'N Ontleding van 2012 van al die beste studies wat tot dusver gedoen is, het die gevolgtrekking gekom dat vegetariërs aansienlik laer is. Die grootste vooruitskouende studie oor dieet en kanker wat ooit uitgevoer is, het byvoorbeeld tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat "die voorkoms van alle kankers saam onder vegetariërs laer is."

Dit is goeie nuus, ja. Maar wat as ons soek puik nuus? As vegetariërs soveel beter vaar as vleiseters, wat van veganiste? Is dit 'n nog beter manier om te eet? Ons het tot dusver nie seker geweet nie.

'N Nuwe studie van die Loma Linda Universiteit wat deur die National Cancer Institute gefinansier is, het berig dat vegane laer kanker het as vleiseters en vegetariërs. Veganistiese vroue het byvoorbeeld 34 persent laer vroue-spesifieke kankers soos borskanker, servikale en eierstokkanker gehad. En dit is vergelyk met 'n groep gesonde omnivore wat aansienlik minder vleis geëet het as die algemene bevolking (twee porsies per week of meer), sowel as nadat hulle gekontroleer het op nie-dieet faktore soos rook, alkohol en 'n familiegeskiedenis van kanker .

Waarom het veganiste so 'n laer risiko vir kanker? Dit is fassinerende dinge: 'n Elegante reeks eksperimente is uitgevoer waarin mense op verskillende diëte geplaas is en hul bloed daarna op menslike kankerselle gedrup is wat in 'n petriskottel groei, om te sien wie se dieet meer kanker in die kolf geslaan het. Vroue wat byvoorbeeld slegs twee weke op plantaardige diëte geplaas is, het die groei van drie verskillende tipes borskanker onderdruk (sien beelde van die kankeropruiming). Dieselfde bloed wat deur hierdie vroulike liggame vloei, het die krag gekry om die groei van borskanker aansienlik te vertraag danksy slegs twee weke van 'n gesonde plantgebaseerde dieet! (Twee weke! Stel jou voor wat na 'n jaar in jou liggaam aangaan!) Soortgelyke resultate is gevind vir mans teen prostaatkanker (sowel as teen prostaatvergroting).

Hoe kan 'n eenvoudige dieetverandering die bloedstroom in 'n paar dae so onherbergsaam maak vir kanker? Die dramatiese verbetering in die verdediging van kanker na twee weke gesonder eet word vermoedelik toegeskryf aan veranderinge in die vlak van 'n kankerbevorderende groeihormoon in die liggaam genaamd IGF-1. Dierlike proteïeninname verhoog die vlakke van IGF-1 in ons liggaam, maar binne twee weke nadat ons oorgegaan het na 'n plantgebaseerde dieet, daal IGF-1-vlakke in die bloedstroom voldoende om die groei van kankerselle te vertraag.

Hoe plantaardig moet ons eet? Studies wat die vlakke van IGF-1 in vleiseters versus vegetariërs versus veganiste vergelyk, dui daarop dat ons moet streef na die uitskakeling van diereprodukte uit ons dieet. Dit word ondersteun deur die nuwe studie waarin die duisende Amerikaanse veganiste bestudeer het, nie net laer vetsug, diabetes en hoë bloeddruk nie, maar ook aansienlik laer kankerrisiko.

Dit is sinvol as u die navorsing wat deur Dr. Dean Ornish en die Nobelpryswenner Elizabeth Blackburn, het bevind dat 'n veganistiese dieet veroorsaak het dat meer as 500 gene binne slegs drie maande verander, wat gene aanskakel wat siektes voorkom en gene wat borskanker, hartsiektes, prostaatkanker en ander siektes veroorsaak, afskakel. . Dit is bemagtigende nuus, aangesien die meeste mense dink dat hulle 'n slagoffer van hul gene is, hulpeloos om van die mees gevreesde siektes af te weer. Ons is eintlik glad nie hulpeloos nie; die krag is grootliks in ons hande. Dit is eintlik op ons vurke.


Vegetariese dieetpatrone en kardiovaskulêre siektes

Kardiovaskulêre (CV) siekte (CVD) is die wêreldwye grootste oorsaak van sterftes, wat verantwoordelik is vir 46% van nie-oordraagbare siektes. Daar word beraam dat ongeveer 85,6 miljoen Amerikaners met een of ander vorm van CVD leef, wat steeds toeneem. Gesonde leefstylkeuses kan die risiko van miokardiale infarksie met & gt80%verminder, met voeding 'n sleutelrol. Vegetariese dieetpatrone verminder CVD -sterftes en die risiko van koronêre hartsiektes (CHD) met 40%. Plantgebaseerde diëte is die enigste dieetpatroon wat 'n omkering van CHD getoon het. Daarbenewens dui bewyse die voordele van vegetariese dieetpatrone aan vir die voorkoming en behandeling van hartversaking en serebrovaskulêre siektes. Plantgebaseerde diëte hou verband met laer bloeddruk, laer bloedlipiede en verminderde bloedplaatjiesaggregasie as nie-vegetariese dieet, en is voordelig vir gewigsbeheer, verminder die risiko om metaboliese sindroom te ontwikkel en tipe 2-diabetes. Daar is ook getoon dat hulle 'n effektiewe behandelingsmetode in die behandeling van diabetes is. Goed beplande vegetariese diëte bied voordele vir die voorkoming en omkeer van aterosklerose en die vermindering van risikofaktore vir CVD en moet bevorder word deur dieetriglyne en aanbevelings.

Sleutelwoorde: Kardiovaskulêre siekte Vegetariese dieetpatrone.


'N Sistematiese oorsig van die verband tussen veganistiese diëte en risiko vir kardiovaskulêre siektes

Agtergrond: Plantgebaseerde dieet kry wêreldwyd aandag vanweë hul voordele vir die omgewing en die rol wat hulle as gesondheidsbeskermend beskou. 'N Veganiese dieet kan kardiovaskulêre voordele inhou, maar bewyse bly teenstrydig en word onvoldoende beoordeel.

Doelwitte: Ons het die nut van die veganistiese dieet in die voorkoming van kardiovaskulêre siektes (CVD) geëvalueer.

Metodes: Ons het 'n sistematiese oorsig van studies gedoen wat die verband tussen veganiese diëte en kardiovaskulêre uitkomste evalueer. Ons het 5 databasisse deursoek (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus en OpenGrey) tot en met 31 Oktober 2020. Vier ondersoekers het die volledige tekste onafhanklik gekeur vir insluiting, kwaliteit beoordeel en data uit gepubliseerde verslae onttrek.

Resultate: Uit die 5729 geïdentifiseerde rekords is 7 ingesluit, waarvan meer as 73 000 deelnemers, waarvan minstens 7661 veganiste was. Drie studies, met ten minste 73 426 individue (insluitend ten minste 7380 veganiste), ondersoek die risiko's van primêre kardiovaskulêre gebeurtenisse (totale CVD, koronêre hartsiekte, akute miokardiale infarksie, totale beroerte, hemorragiese beroerte en ischemiese beroerte) by individue wat 'n vegan volg dieet in vergelyking met diegene wat dit nie gedoen het nie. Nie een van die studies het 'n beduidend verhoogde of verlaagde risiko van kardiovaskulêre uitkoms gerapporteer nie. Een studie het voorgestel dat veganiste 'n groter risiko het vir ischemiese beroerte in vergelyking met individue wat diereprodukte verbruik het (HR, 1,54 95% CI, 0,95-2,48). Tog, in 'n ander studie, het veganiste 'n laer algemene intima-media dikte van die halsslagader getoon (0,56 ± 0,1 mm teenoor 0,74 ± 0,1 mm in kontrole P & lt 0,001), en in 3 studies van herhalende CVD-gebeurtenisse het veganiste 0-52% laer dosisse gehad . Verder verskil die endoteelfunksie nie tussen vegane en nie -vegane. Met behulp van die gradering van aanbevelings -evaluerings-, ontwikkelings- en evalueringsbenadering, is bewyse van lae tot baie lae sterkte/kwaliteit beskou.

Gevolgtrekkings: Onder die Westerse bevolkings wat bestudeer is, toon bewyse swak verband tussen veganiese diëte en risiko vir CVD's, met die rigting van assosiasies wat wissel met die spesifieke CVD -uitkoms wat getoets word. Meer navorsing van hoë gehalte oor hierdie onderwerp is egter nodig. Hierdie studie is by PROSPERO geregistreer as CRD42019146835.

Sleutelwoorde: kardiovaskulêre siekte halsslagader intima-media dikte kransslagader siekte koronêre hartsiekte dieet ingrypings isgemiese aanval plant-gebaseerde openbare gesondheid beroerte vegan.

© Die outeur (s) 2021. Gepubliseer deur Oxford University Press namens die American Society for Nutrition.


Volgens kenners die beste (en slegste) diëte van 2020

Amerikaanse nuus en wêreldberig verlaag hul jaarlikse ranglys van die gewildste diëte per dag of so in die nuwe jaar, en dit is 'n baie nuttige hulpmiddel vir almal wat verward is oor watter dieet hulle die beste pas, en waarvan hulle ver weg moet bly.  

Hierdie jaar is die Mediterreense dieet vir die derde agtereenvolgende jaar as wenner gekroon, gevolg deur die DASH-, Flexitarian- en WW -dieet (die dieet wat formeel bekend staan ​​as Weight Watchers). Een van die gewildste diëte van die afgelope dekade, keto, was een van die grootste verloorders van die jaar, wat die tweede na die dood was, net voor die Dukan -dieet.  

Geen verrassing nie: die beste algehele dieet is die Mediterreense dieet.

Die Mediterreense dieet, wat ryk is aan vrugte en groente, gesonde vette en volgraan, en 'n magdom gesondheidsvoordele bied wat deur die wetenskap gesteun is, was die grootste wenner van die jaar, omdat dit uiters sinvol is. & #x201D

Die kenmerke van 'n & aposbest & apos-dieet sluit in balans, instandhouding, smaaklikheid, gesinsvriendelikheid, volhoubaarheid, tesame met gesondheid, ” verduidelik David Katz, besturende direkteur van die Yale University Prevention Research Center en een van 25 beoordelaars oor die Amerikaanse nuus en wêreldberig paneel. “ Die Mediterreense dieet kry 'n regmerkie in al die bokse, 'het hy in 'n persverklaring gesê.

Verder, GesondheidCynthia Sass, RD, bydraende voedingsredakteur, wys daarop dat een van die belangrikste kriteria wat gebruik word om dieet te rangskik, navorsing is en dat die Mediterreense dieet histories voordelig is en dat dit lank reeds 'n goue standaard was in terme van bewys resultate vir beide gewigsbeheer en gesondheidsuitkomste. Omdat die Mediterreense dieet al so lank 'n lewenswyse in die wêreld was, het ons baie inligting oor die impak daarvan op gewigsbeheer en die risiko van chroniese siektes, verduidelik sy.  

As u doel egter is om vinnig skraal te word, sal die Mediterreense dieet u waarskynlik nie daarheen bring nie. Dit het sy laagste telling behaal in die beste vinnige gewigsverliesdieet.  

Die Mediterreense geïnspireerde DASH-dieet (wat staan ​​vir dieetbenaderings om hipertensie te stop), wat ontwerp is om bloeddruk te verlaag en dieselfde kan doen vir cholesterol en bloeddruk, en die Flexitariese dieet, 'n buigsame plantgebaseerde ȁMeestal vegetariër & #x201D manier van eet, gelykop vir tweede.

WW, die dieet wat formeel bekend staan ​​as Weight Watchers, het die vierde plek behaal (wat waarskynlik te doen het met die aantal studies wat die vermoë het om mense suksesvol te help om gewig te verloor, stel Sass voor), terwyl die vyfde plek 'n drieledige verhouding was tussen Mayo Clinic Dieet, gedagte en volumetrie.  

Sass is verbaas dat meer plantaardige diëte, soos vegetariër en veganisties, die top 5 behaal het, want navorsing ondersteun hul vermoë om gewig te reguleer en die risiko van siektes te verlaag, verduidelik sy. Ek dink egter dat navorsing die gevolg is dat die flexitariese dieet so hoog kan wees, wat in wese 'n semi-plantgebaseerde dieet is.

Volgens Angela Haupt, besturende redakteur van gesondheid by Amerikaanse nuus en wêreldverslag, het volhoubaarheid 'n groot rol gespeel in die kies van die wenners.  

'Ons is geïnteresseerd in diëte wat 'n bewese waarde het - nie 'n modegier wat vandag hier is nie, môre weg', het sy in 'n persverklaring gesê. Die dieet wat goed presteer, is veilig, verstandig en word ondersteun deur goeie wetenskap. Dit sal van jaar tot jaar konsekwent bly. & Quot

Een van vanjaar se slegste diëte (en grootste verrassings): keto.

Ja, die vetryke, lae-koolhidraatdieet wat 'n kultus-gevolg gekry het vanweë sy vinnig-skraal beloftes, is die tweede op die laaste plek, met kenners wat aandag gee aan die klem op vetryke voedsel.

Hierdie dieet is fundamenteel in stryd met alles wat ons weet oor langtermyn gesondheid, het 'n kenner opgemerk. Hulle het ook opgemerk dat dit minimaal effektief is in die voorkoming van diabetes en die bevordering van hartgesondheid, dat dit onvoldoende bewyse het om langtermyn gewigsverlies te ondersteun, (“ mense verloor gewig en hou dit op lang termyn af, en#x201D sê Sass)  isn ’ is nie baie voedsaam nie, en dit is moeilik om te volg. 'n Kenner het gesê dat die langtermynopvolging van hierdie eetplan die moeilikste aspek van hierdie dieet is. Mense raak baie verveeld deur net vetterige kos, vet en vleis te eet.

Behalwe dat dit moeilik is om in stand te hou, voeg Sass by dat keto ook die potensiaal het om negatiewe gesondheidsuitkomste, insluitend tekorte aan voedingstowwe, te skep en die derm -mikrobioom te verander op maniere wat inflammasie kan verhoog en immuniteit en geestesgesondheid kan beïnvloed.  

Die enigste kategorie waar keto redelik goed gevaar het, was die beste vinnige gewigsverlies-dieet, wat gelykop was met die derde plek.  

Ander lae diëte sluit in die Dukan-dieet, Whole30, Atkins en die Raw Food-dieet. Die nommer een ding wat die vyf diëte onderaan die lys gemeen het, is 'n gebrek aan navorsing, hetsy oor gewigsverliesuitkomste, of die impak daarvan op die gesondheid, ” Sass wys daarop.

Op grond van hierdie lys, kan u die regte dieet vir u kies.

Terwyl die lys al die diëte van die beste tot die ergste rangskik, het Haupt daarop gewys dat die doel van die lys is dat mense die inligting moet opneem en dit kan gebruik om 'n dieet te kies wat die beste by hulle pas.  

"Of jy nou probeer om gewig te verloor of die gesondheid van jou hart te verbeter, dieet is nie 'n eenvormige pasmaat nie," verduidelik Haupt. Die ranglys vir beste diëte in 2020 gee verbruikers die inligting en data wat nodig is om 'n ingeligte besluit te neem wat hulle help, tesame met die insette van hul dokter of 'n ander mediese beroep en kies die plan wat vir hulle die beste is. & quot

Sass stel voor dat u u eie gesonde eetplan opstel, deur die gids te gebruik om uself oor voeding te leer. Die beste dieet vir u is moontlik geen dieet nie, maar leen eerder uit die beginsels van verskillende planne om 'n strategie te skep waarmee u gewig kan verloor terwyl u fisies, emosioneel en sosiaal goed voel, en sy sê. 𠇍ie strategie behoort ook die vermoë te hê om 'n langtermyn-leefstyl te word, nie iets wat jy jo-jo ‘ op ’ en ‘off nie. ’ ” Die belangrikste is dat dit eintlik jou gesondheid moet beskerm of verbeter.

As 'n dieet nie al hierdie bokse aandui nie, sal dit waarskynlik uitkom en u weer laat waar u begin het. Of u kan gewigsverlies bereik ten koste van u fisiese of geestelike gesondheid, wat nie die moeite werd is nie, en ook nie volhoubaar is nie, ” sê sy.  

Voordat jy jou tot enige plan verbind, dring Sass aan om jouself af te vra of jy dit nog kan dink of jy dit ses maande of 'n jaar later sou volg, of hoe jy dit moontlik moet verander om dit vir jou meer uitvoerbaar en volhoubaar te maak. Een ding wat ons weet van 'n gesonde gewigsverlies en om dit af te hou, is dat konsekwentheid die belangrikste is, en sy wys daarop. Vir sukses op lang termyn en optimale gesondheid, volg 'n nuwe manier om gesond te eet, nie op kort termyn nie ‘ -dieet, ’, ongeag wat dit is, of dit nuwerwets of gewild is. ”

Hoe die ranglys bereken word.

Om die ranglys te bepaal, Amerikaanse nuus en wêreldberig het 'n deskundige paneel byeengeroep wat bestaan ​​uit 25 van die land se topvoedingkundiges, dieetkonsultante en dokters wat spesialiseer in diabetes, hartgesondheid en gewigsverlies. Elkeen van die kundiges voltooi 'n diepgaande opname met 35 diëte op sewe gebiede, insluitend die gemak van nakoming, die waarskynlikheid om aansienlike gewig op kort en lang termyn te verloor en doeltreffendheid teen kardiovaskulêre siektes en diabetes.  

Die grondbeginsels van volhoubare, gesonde eetgewoontes verander nie elke jaar nie, maar die maniere om daar te kom, die verskeidenheid variante oor die algemene tema en die mees onlangse bewyse, 'verduidelik doktor Katz. Deur die assessering van uiteenlopende kundiges saam te voeg om al die noodsaaklike inligting in 'n enkele, gebruikersvriendelike en altyd gretig verwagte verslag saam te voeg, Amerikaanse nuus lewer 'n unieke en werklik bemagtigende diens. & quot

Meld u aan by die   om meer voedingsverhale in u inkassie te stuurGebalanseerde byt nuusbrief


'N Veganiese dieet verminder die ernstige COVID -risiko met 73%, dui studie aan

Deur vegan te gaan, kan die risiko van ernstige komplikasies met koronavirus met 73%verminder word, dui navorsing aan.

Die gesondheidsvoordele en-nadele van die aanneming van 'n plantgebaseerde dieet word al lank bespreek. Terwyl veganiste oor die algemeen 'n hoër vitamien C- en veselinname het, kan vleis en suiwelprodukte mense laat ontbreek aan vitamien B12, yster en kalsium.

Om beter te verstaan ​​hoe 'n mens se dieet hul risiko vir COVID-19, die siekte wat deur die koronavirus veroorsaak word, beïnvloed, het 'n span van die Stamford-hospitaal in Connecticut meer as 2800 mediese personeel in ses lande ontleed.

Die werkers wie se dieet oorwegend vegan was-bestaande uit groente, lensies en neute met min vleis-het 73% minder kans om matige tot ernstige siektes op te doen.

Die resultate dui daarop dat vis of seekos by die plantgebaseerde dieet gevoeg word.

'N Dieet vol groente, maar laag in verwerkte vleis en vetvet suiwel, kan mense help om 'n gesonde gewig te handhaaf-met vetsug wat lankal gekoppel is aan ernstige COVID-19.

Die resultate van die Connecticut -span bly egter dieselfde nadat hulle aangepas het vir die liggaamsmassa -indeks van die werkers, wat daarop dui dat 'n ander faktor kan speel.

Afgesien van die koronavirus, het lugweginfeksies in 2016 alleenlik 2,4 miljoen mense wêreldwyd doodgemaak. Dit is bekend dat voedingsfaktore die immuunrespons van 'n persoon beïnvloed.

Om beter te verstaan ​​hoe dieetkeuses die komplikasies van koronavirus beïnvloed, het die Connecticut-span gesondheidswerkers ontleed met 'n aansienlike blootstelling aan COVID-19-pasiënte uit die Verenigde Koninkryk, die VSA, Frankryk, Duitsland, Spanje en Italië.

Die werkers het 'n opname tussen Julie en September 2020 voltooi, met inligting oor hul dieet oor die afgelope jaar en die moontlike komplikasies van die koronavirus.

Van die werkers is 568 bekend of vermoed dat hulle die koronavirus opgedoen het, wat in 138 gevalle matig tot ernstig was.

'N Oorwegend veganistiese dieet, met of sonder vis, hou verband met 'n laer risiko van komplikasies met koronavirus.

Alhoewel 'n veganistiese dieet COVID -komplikasies kan voorkom, was dit nie gekoppel aan 'n verminderde risiko om die koronavirus self op te doen of die infeksie vinniger te oorkom nie.

Die resultate - gepubliseer in die joernaal BMJ Nutrition Prevention & amp Health - het dieselfde gebly nadat die span verantwoordelik was vir die gewig, ouderdom, etnisiteit, rookstatus en aktiwiteitsvlakke van die werkers.

Dit is bekend dat koronaviruskomplikasies meer algemeen voorkom onder bejaardes en diegene van 'n nie-blanke etnisiteit. Rook en 'n sittende leefstyl kan ook die risiko verhoog.

Waarom die resultate plaasgevind het, is onduidelik, maar veganistiese dieet bevat baie voedingstowwe wat die immuungesondheid versterk.

Vir pescatariërs is olierige vis soos salm en makriel ook ryk aan vitamien D en omega-3-vetsure, anti-inflammatoriese voedingstowwe wat COVID-19 kan afweer.

Kyk: beïnvloed die inentings teen koronavirus vrugbaarheid?

Die span het beklemtoon dat hul studie waarnemend was en bewys dus nie oorsaak en gevolg nie.

Die meeste deelnemers was ook mans, wat beteken dat die resultate moontlik nie van toepassing is op vroue nie, sowel as op mense wat nie in die gesondheidsorg werk nie.

Die neigings in hierdie studie word beperk deur die grootte van die studie en die ontwerp (selfverslagdoening oor dieet en simptome), dus is versigtigheid nodig by die interpretasie van die bevindings, 'het Shane McAuliffe, van die NNEdPro Nutrition en COVID-19 Taskforce, gesê.

Professor Gunter Kuhnle van die University of Reading stem saam en voeg by: "Die studie berus geheel en al op selfrapportering en baie [van] data het getoon dat self-gerapporteerde dieetinname onbetroubaar is.

Die studie is [ook] uitgevoer in verskillende lande met baie verskillende diëte. 'N Plantgebaseerde dieet in Spanje of Italië sal waarskynlik verskil van 'n hoofsaaklik plantgebaseerde dieet in Duitsland of die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Tog het McAuliffe bygevoeg: & quotA dieet van hoë gehalte is belangrik vir die opbou van 'n voldoende immuunrespons, wat weer die vatbaarheid vir infeksie en die erns daarvan kan beïnvloed.

Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoefte aan beter ontwerpte voornemende studies oor die verband tussen dieet, voedingstatus en COVID-19-uitkomste.


Die Flexitariese dieet moedig gesonde kos aan.

In teenstelling met ander diëte met talle lyste van voedsel wat u nie kan eet nie, fokus die Flexitariese dieet op wat u wil kan eat, with an emphasis on wholesome foods.

There are five Flex food groups, including:

  • The &ldquoNew Meat" refers to plant-proteins like beans, legumes, tofu, and tempeh
  • Fruits and veggies, including a variety of non-starchy and starchy vegetables
  • Volgraan, such as quinoa, brown rice, oats, barley, millet, corn, and farro
  • Suiwel includes animal- and plant-based yogurt, milk, kefir, and cheese
  • &ldquoSugar and spice&rdquo are ingredients and condiments that boost flavor, such as herbs and spices, sweeteners, and vinegars. This section includes healthy fats like avocado, nuts, seeds, and oils

When incorporating animal products into the Flexitarian Diet, you're encouraged to make more sustainable protein choices, like:

  • Free-range or pasture-raised eggs
  • Organic or pasture-raised meat, dairy, and poultry
  • Wild-caught seafood

Although there aren't any food restrictions on the Flexitarian Diet, you should limit:


Plant�sed Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All�use Mortality in a General Population of Middle𠄊ged Adults

Previous studies have documented the cardiometabolic health benefits of plant‐based diets however, these studies were conducted in selected study populations that had narrow generalizability.

Methods and Results

We used data from a community‐based cohort of middle‐aged adults (n=12 168) in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who were followed up from 1987 through 2016. Participants’ diet was classified using 4 diet indexes. In the overall plant‐based diet index and provegetarian diet index, higher intakes of all or selected plant foods received higher scores in the healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the healthy plant foods received higher scores in the less healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the less healthy plant foods received higher scores. In all indexes, higher intakes of animal foods received lower scores. Results from Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants in the highest versus lowest quintile for adherence to overall plant‐based diet index or provegetarian diet had a 16%, 31% to 32%, and 18% to 25% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality, respectively, after adjusting for important confounders (all Bl<0.05 for trend). Higher adherence to a healthy plant‐based diet index was associated with a 19% and 11% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, respectively, but not incident cardiovascular disease (Bl<0.05 for trend). No associations were observed between the less healthy plant‐based diet index and the outcomes.

Conclusions

Diets higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a general population.

Clinical Perspective

What Is New?

Plant‐based diets, diets that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and lower intakes of animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US adult population.

Healthful plant‐based diets, diets higher in nutrient‐dense plant foods and lower in refined carbohydrates and animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, but not incident cardiovascular disease.

What Are the Clinical Implications?

Our results suggest that dietary patterns that are relatively higher in plant foods and relatively lower in animal foods may confer benefits for cardiovascular health.

Future research examining whether the quality of plant foods (healthful versus less healthful) within the framework of an overall plant‐based diet is associated with cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality is warranted.

Inleiding

Plant‐based diets are dietary patterns that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and are low in animal foods. Vegetarian diets, a type of plant‐based diet, with a focus on restriction of different types of animal foods (meat, poultry, or fish), have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease. 1 , 2 , 3 However, prospective cohort studies have shown mixed results on the associations with cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality. 4 , 5 , 6 These previous studies were conducted in selected study populations that were mostly composed of Seventh‐Day Adventists, vegetarians, or health‐conscious individuals thus, they had relatively narrow generalizability. 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9

Although prior studies have characterized participants’ diets using a relatively simple classification method based on frequency of animal food consumption, 4 , 5 , 6 there have since been more comprehensive attempts to assess an individual's diet using plant‐based diet indexes. 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 These indexes give higher scores for higher consumption of plant foods and lower consumption of animal foods, allowing researchers to examine whether the degree of adherence to an overall plant‐based diet is associated with health outcomes. Studies that used such indexes (ie, an overall plant‐based diet index [PDI] or a provegetarian diet index) found that greater adherence to these diets was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and all‐cause mortality. 10 , 11 , 12 In addition, some plant‐based indexes separately scored healthful (whole grains, vegetables, and plant proteins) and unhealthful (refined carbohydrates and sugar) plant sources of food. Healthful plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only healthful plant foods higher, were more strongly inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease than the overall plant‐based diets. 11 , 12 In contrast, greater adherence to less healthful (unhealthful) plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only less healthful plant foods higher, were associated with a higher risk of these conditions. 11 , 12

Given the limited evidence on plant‐based diets in the general population and recent developments in plant‐based diet scores, the objectives of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate whether overall plant‐based diets are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US population and (2) to assess if the association differed by adherence to healthful and less healthful plant‐based diets using 4 a priori defined plant‐based diet scores (overall plant‐based diet, healthy plant‐based diet, less healthy plant‐based diet, and provegetarian diet indexes).

Methods

ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study data are available through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. Interested researchers may also contact the ARIC study Coordinating Center to access data and study materials.

Study Design

We used data from a community‐based cohort of middle‐aged men and women (45–64 years of age at baseline, n=15 792) in the ARIC study. From 1987 to 1989, participants from 4 US communities (Washington County, Maryland Forsyth County, North Carolina Minneapolis, MN and Jackson, MS) were enrolled in the study. 14 Follow‐up visits occurred in 1990 to 1992 (visit 2), 1993 to 1995 (visit 3), 1996 to 1998 (visit 4), 2011 to 2013 (visit 5), and 2016 to 2017 (visit 6). 14 The Institutional Review Board at each study site approved the study protocol, and participants provided informed consent.

Dietary Assessment

At baseline and visit 3, participants’ usual intake of foods and beverages was assessed by trained interviewers using a modified version of the 66‐item semiquantitative Willett food frequency questionnaire. 15 Participants indicated the frequency with which they consumed foods and beverages of a defined serving size in the previous year. Visual guides, such as glasses and measuring cups, were provided for participants to estimate portion size. The reliability of the food frequency questionnaire was assessed in a random sample of ARIC study participants (n=419) from all 4 study sites at visit 2. 15 Nutrient and total energy intakes were derived through multiplying consumption of food by nutrient content of each item in the food frequency questionnaire.

Plant‐Based Diet Scores

The ARIC study did not assess whether participants were following a plant‐based diet. We used established plant‐based diet scores (PDI, healthy plant‐based diet index [hPDI], less healthy [unhealthy] plant‐based diet index [uPDI], and provegetarian diet index) to assess participants’ degree of adherence to plant‐based diets on the basis of their reported dietary intake on the food frequency questionnaire. We used these 4 plant‐based diet indexes to provide comprehensive and nuanced characterization of dietary intakes because the indexes differed from each other in scoring of food groups within the indexes. For instance, the PDI was more comprehensive than the provegetarian index in that the PDI assessed dietary intakes of plant foods high in refined carbohydrates (fruit juices, sugar‐sweetened beverages, sweets, and desserts). Consistent with some ethically motivated dietary patterns that are focused on the exclusion of animal sources of food and have less of an emphasis on the quality of plant foods, the provegetarian diet index provides a more simplistic score of the diet in that these refined carbohydrate food groups were not assessed. Further details on differences and construction of the scores have been published previously and are available in Data S1. 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 16

The PDI, hPDI, and uPDI had a possible range from 17 to 85, and the provegetarian diet index had a possible range from 11 to 55. All scores were divided into quintiles for analyses.

Outcome Assessment

Incident cardiovascular disease events and deaths (cardiovascular and all cause) were ascertained through annual telephone calls with participants or proxies, active surveillance of local hospital discharge records and state death records, and linkage to the National Death Index from baseline to December 31, 2016. Incident cardiovascular disease was defined as a composite outcome of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Incident coronary heart disease was defined as hospitalized myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease. 17 Incident stroke was defined as definite or probable stroke, which was adjudicated. 18 Incident heart failure was defined as hospitalization or death, with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD‐9), code 428 or International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD‐10), code I50. 19 All‐cause mortality was defined as deaths attributable to any cause, and cardiovascular disease mortality was defined as deaths with ICD‐9 codes 390 to 459 or ICD‐10 codes I00 to I99.

Covariate Assessment

At baseline, participants’ sociodemographic information (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education), health behaviors (cigarette smoking, frequency and duration of physical activity, alcohol intake, and margarine intake), medication use (lipid‐lowering medication use, antihypertensive medication use, or diabetes mellitus medication use), and health conditions (diagnosis of diseases) were collected by self‐reports.

Trained staff measured participants’ weight and height, which was used to calculate body mass index (BMI kg/m 2 ). Those whose BMI was ≤25 kg/m 2 were classified as normal weight, those whose BMI was from 25 to <30 kg/m 2 were classified as overweight, and those whose BMI was ≥30 kg/m 2 were classified as obese. An enzymatic method was used to measure total cholesterol concentration. 20 A certified technician measured participants’ blood pressure 3 times, and the second and third measurements were averaged. The modified hexokinase/glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase method was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) was estimated from serum creatinine measurement using the 2009 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. 21 We defined hypertension as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication use in the past 2 weeks. We defined diabetes mellitus as fasting glucose concentration of ≥126 mg/dL, nonfasting blood glucose concentration of ≥200 mg/dL, self‐reported physician's diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or diabetes mellitus medication use in the past 2 weeks.

Statistical Analyses

We calculated dietary intakes from baseline and visit 3 using cumulative averaged diet with respect to each outcome. 22 For example, we used dietary intake from only visit 1 if participants developed cardiovascular disease or were censored before visit 3. We averaged the dietary intake from both visits if participants developed cardiovascular disease or were censored after visit 3.

To create the final analytic sample of 12 168, we first excluded participants with implausible total energy intake (<500 or >3500 kcal for women and <700 or >4500 kcal for men, n=383). Then, we excluded those whose race/ethnicity was neither black nor white (n=47), blacks in Minnesota (n=18), and blacks in Maryland (n=23). We also excluded participants with a history of myocardial infarction, heart or arterial surgery, heart failure, stroke, and cancer at baseline because diagnosis of these conditions may change dietary habits (n=2677). Participants without complete information on covariates were excluded from analyses as well (n=476).

Baseline characteristics of the study participants and nutritional characteristics of the diet were examined according to quintiles of plant‐based diet scores (PDI, hPDI, uPDI, and provegetarian diet index) using χ 2 tests for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. Food intakes were expressed as servings per day, macronutrients as a percentage of energy, and fiber and micronutrients as g, mg, or μg per 1000 kcal.

We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs to estimate the association between plant‐based diet scores and incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality. Three nested Cox proportional hazards models were modeled using length of follow‐up time as the time metric. In model 1, total energy intake, age, sex, and race‐center (whites in Washington County, Maryland blacks in Forsyth County, North Carolina whites in Forsyth County, North Carolina whites in Minneapolis, MN and blacks in Jackson, MS) were adjusted. In model 2, education (a proxy for socioeconomic status), cigarette smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and margarine intake were additionally adjusted. In model 3, potential mediating variables, such as total cholesterol, lipid‐lowering medication use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, baseline kidney function (2 linear spline terms with 1 knot at 90 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ), and BMI were additionally adjusted. We evaluated the proportionality assumption by examining Schoenfeld residual and log(−log) plots, and we did not find a clear indication that the assumption was violated. The median value within each quintile of plant‐based diet scores was used to test for a linear trend. We considered the main results to be estimates from model 2 (no potential mediating variables). In addition, we used splines to visually depict the relation between plant‐based diet scores as a continuous variable and incident cardiovascular disease. We first used restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at the 5th, 35th, 65th, and 95th percentiles. The shape of the association appeared approximately linear, so we presented the results using 2 linear spline terms with 1 knot at the 12.5th percentile of each plant‐based diet index. As a sensitivity analysis, we considered margarine as part of the plant‐based diet scores instead of a covariate in the fully adjusted models. Margarine intake was positively scored in the PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet index and negatively scored in the uPDI, consistent with how vegetable oil was scored in previous studies. 10 , 11 , 12

We conducted 2 additional analyses in model 3: First, we modeled score components of plant‐based diet scores (healthy plant foods [aggregated consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, tea, and coffee], less healthy plant foods [aggregated consumption of fruits juices, refined grain, potatoes, sugar‐sweetened beverages, sweets, and desserts], and animal foods [aggregated consumption of animal fat, dairy, eggs, fish or seafood, meat, and miscellaneous animal foods] from PDI plant foods [selected] and animal foods from provegetarian diet index) simultaneously instead of the scores. Second, we modeled the individual food groups within PDI and provegetarian diet index simultaneously. Given that associations with red and processed meat differ from poultry with regard to cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality, 23 we reclassified the meat category into 2 separate categories: (1) red and processed meat and (2) poultry. Third, we examined whether the observed associations differed by sex (women/men), age (less than the median, greater than or equal to the median), race (white or black), weight status (normal weight, overweight, or obese), and diabetes mellitus status (diabetes mellitus or no diabetes mellitus). All analyses were conducted using Stata, version 13.0, statistical software (StataCorp, College Station, TX).

Resultate

Baseline Characteristics

The PDI ranged from 28 to 74, the hPDI ranged from 29 to 77, the uPDI ranged from 27 to 76, and the provegetarian diet index ranged from 15 to 54. Those in the highest quintiles of PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet index were more likely to be women, white, high school graduates, and physically active and were less likely to be obese, to be current smokers, to have diabetes mellitus, and to have hypertension at baseline compared with those in the lowest quintiles (Tables 1 and 2, Table S1). Conversely, those in the highest quintile of uPDI were more likely to be men, to be younger, to be current smokers, and to drink a higher amount of alcohol and less likely to be high school graduates, obese, and physically active compared with those in the lowest quintile. Those in the highest quintile of uPDI were more likely to have hypertension, but less likely to have diabetes mellitus (Bl<0.05 for all comparisons) (Table S2).

Table 1. Selected Baseline Characteristics and Nutritional Characteristics by Quintiles of the PDI in the ARIC Study

Values are means (SDs) for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. ARIC indicates Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities BMI, body mass index eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate IU, international units MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid PDI, overall plant‐based diet index PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.

a Indicates a statistical difference by quintiles of PDI (Bl<0.05), tested using ANOVA for continuous variables and χ 2 test for categorical variables.

b Food intakes are expressed as servings per day.

Table 2. Selected Baseline Characteristics and Nutritional Characteristics by Quintiles of the Provegetarian Diet Index in the ARIC Study

Values are means (SDs) for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. ARIC indicates Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities BMI, body mass index eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate IU, international units MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.

a Indicates statistical difference by quintiles of provegetarian diet index (Bl<0.05), tested using ANOVA for continuous variables and χ 2 test for categorical variables.

b Food intakes are expressed as servings per day.

Nutritional Characteristics

Participants in the highest quintiles of PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet index consumed an average of 4.1 to 4.8 servings of fruit and vegetables per day and 0.8 to 0.9 servings of red and processed meat per day (Tables 1 and 2, Table S1). Those in the highest quintiles of PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet had higher intake of carbohydrates and plant protein as a percentage of energy, fiber, and micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folate, and lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol compared with those in the lower quintiles (Bl<0.05 for all comparisons). Polyunsaturated fat as a percentage of energy was higher among those in the highest quintiles of PDI and provegetarian diet, but lower among those in the highest quintiles of hPDI and uPDI (Bl<0.05 for all comparisons).

In contrast, those in the highest quintile of uPDI consumed an average of 2.3 servings of fruit and vegetables per day and 1.2 servings of red and processed meat per day (Table S2). Those in the highest quintile of uPDI consumed higher intake of total energy and carbohydrates as a percentage of energy, but had lower intake of fiber and micronutrients, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folate compared with those in the lowest quintile of uPDI (Bl<0.05 for all comparisons).

Plant‐Based Diets and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes and All‐Cause Mortality

During a median follow‐up of 25 years, 4381 incident cardiovascular disease events, 1565 deaths caused by cardiovascular disease, and 5436 deaths attributable to all causes occurred. Incidence rates for cardiovascular disease events, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality were lower at higher quintiles of PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet index (Table S3). We did not observe a strong and consistent pattern for incidence rates of the outcomes across quintiles of uPDI. There was a significant lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality across quintiles of PDI, hPDI, and provegetarian diet index only in the minimally adjusted models that accounted for age, sex, race‐center, and total energy intake.

The strongest and most consistent significant associations were observed for PDI and provegetarian diet index, with all 3 outcomes in all 3 models (Figures S1 and S2). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race‐center, and education), dietary factors (total energy intake and margarine consumption), and health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption), those in the highest versus lowest quintiles of PDI and provegetarian diet index had a 16% and 16% lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, a 32% and 31% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, and a 25% and 18% lower risk of all‐cause mortality, respectively (Table 3). These associations remained significant and similar in magnitude after adjusting for potential mediating factors (total cholesterol, lipid‐lowering medication use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and BMI) (Table S4). In the continuous analysis, there was an approximately linear inverse relationship between PDI (Figure 1) and provegetarian diet index (Figure 2) scores and risk of incident cardiovascular disease.

Table 3. Hazard Ratios and 95% CIs for Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All‐Cause Mortality, According to Quintiles of Plant‐Based Diet Indexes

Data are adjusted for age, sex, race‐center, total energy intake, education, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and margarine consumption. hPDI indicates healthy plant‐based diet index PDI, overall plant‐based diet index uPDI, less healthy (unhealthy) plant‐based diet index.

Figuur 1. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs for incident cardiovascular disease, according to the continuous overall plant‐based diet index (PDI). The histogram shows the distribution of scores for the PDI in gray. The solid lines represent the adjusted hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, modeled using 2 linear spline terms with 1 knot at the 12.5th percentile of PDI (score, 44), which was used as the reference point. The dashed lines represent the 95% CIs. Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race‐center, total energy intake, education, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, margarine consumption, baseline total cholesterol, lipid medication use, baseline kidney function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and baseline body mass index.

Figure 2. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs for incident cardiovascular disease, according to the continuous provegetarian diet score. The histogram shows the distribution of scores for the provegetarian diet index in gray. The solid lines represent the adjusted hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, modeled using 2 linear spline terms with 1 knot at the 12.5th percentile of the provegetarian diet index (score, 27), which was used as the reference point. The dashed lines represent the 95% CIs. The hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race‐center, total energy intake, education, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, margarine consumption, baseline total cholesterol, lipid medication use, baseline kidney function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and baseline body mass index.

For hPDI, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and health behaviors in model 2, those in the highest versus lowest quintile had a 19% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.81 95% CI, 0.68–0.97 Bl=0.01 for trend) and an 11% lower risk of all‐cause mortality (HR, 0.89 95% CI, 0.81–0.98 Bl=0.01 for trend) (Table 3). After accounting for potential mediating factors in model 3, there was still a significant inverse trend for cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality across quintiles of hPDI (Bl=0.03 for trend for both) (Table S4). However, we found no significant association between hPDI and incident cardiovascular disease in model 2 (Table 3) or model 3 (Table S4).

No significant associations were observed between uPDI and the outcomes in model 1 (Table S3), model 2 (Table 3), or model 3 (Table S4) (all Bl>0.05 for trend). Similar results were observed when we used hPDI and uPDI as continuous variables (Figures S3 and S4).

When margarine was included as part of the scores, the association between provegetarian diet and incident cardiovascular disease was attenuated (HRquintile 5 versus quintile 1, 0.89 95% CI, 0.81–1.00 Bl=0.01 for trend). The results were similar to those from the main analysis for all other indexes.

Analyses on Score Components and Individual Food Groups

When we modeled score components of PDI (quintiles of healthy plant food, less healthy plant food, and animal food) simultaneously instead of the overall score in model 3, those in the highest quintile of animal food consumption had a higher risk of incident cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.14 95% CI, 1.04–1.27 Bl<0.001 for trend), cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 1.30 95% CI, 1.10–1.54 Bl<0.001 for trend), and all‐cause mortality (HR, 1.12 95% CI, 1.02–1.23 Bl=0.001 for trend) compared with those in the lowest quintile, whereas no significant association was observed for healthy plant food or less healthy plant food consumption (Table S5). When components of the provegetarian diet index (quintiles of selected plant foods and animal foods) were modeled, similar associations with animal foods were observed for all 3 outcomes (all Bl<0.01 for trend). A higher intake of selected plant food in the provegetarian diet index was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (Bl=0.009 for trend) and all‐cause mortality (Bl<0.001 for trend), but the association between selected plant food in the provegetarian diet index and cardiovascular disease was not statistically significant (HR, 0.95 95% CI, 0.86–1.05 Bl=0.05 for trend).

When we modeled all food groups in the PDI simultaneously, higher intakes of whole grains were consistently associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality, whereas higher intakes of eggs and red and processed meat were associated with a higher risk of all 3 outcomes (Table S6). Higher intake of potatoes, which were classified as less healthy plant foods for hPDI and uPDI, was inversely associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality. There was no significant association for dairy or for fish and seafood with all 3 outcomes. Similar associations between individual food components of the provegetarian diet index (specifically, eggs, red and processed meat, potatoes, dairy, and fish or seafood) were observed.

Subgroup Analyses

For incident cardiovascular disease, we found evidence of statistical interaction by diabetes mellitus status with hPDI (Bl=0.01 for interaction) and provegetarian diet (Bl=0.03 for interaction) (Figure S5). The associations for hPDI and provegetarian diet with risk of incident cardiovascular disease were stronger among those with diabetes mellitus relative to those without diabetes mellitus, although hPDI was not significantly associated with cardiovascular disease in either subgroup. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed by sex, age, race, or weight status with incident cardiovascular disease. There was also no statistical interaction by sex, age, race, weight status, or diabetes mellitus status with cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality for all indexes (Bl>0.05 for interaction for all tests).

Discussion

In this community‐based cohort of US adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline, we found that higher adherence to an overall plant‐based diet or a provegetarian diet, diets that are higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods, was associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality. Healthy plant‐based diets, which are higher in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, tea, and coffee and lower in animal foods, were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality.

Our study is one of the few studies that used data from a general population. Prospective studies of Seventh‐Day Adventists in the United States and Canada found that vegetarians had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality compared with nonvegetarians. 4 The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition)‐Oxford study of vegetarians, vegans, and health‐conscious individuals reported that the risk of incident ischemic heart disease and deaths caused by circulatory disease was lower in vegetarians than nonvegetarians. 5 , 24 However, these findings were not replicated in population‐based studies in Australia and the United States. 6 , 13 Notably, a prior study that used data from a nationally representative sample administered a brief questionnaire that assessed the frequency with which participants consumed specific types of animal food (red meat, processed meat, poultry, or fish or seafood) to characterize participants’ dietary intakes. 6 Such dietary measurement may not have adequately represented dietary patterns on the basis of abundance of plant foods relative to animal foods. The plant‐based diet indexes we used in this study captured a wider spectrum of intake of plant foods and animal foods, leveraging the available dietary data, and allowed us to move away from defining plant‐based diets strictly based on exclusion of animal foods.

Our results on overall plant‐based diets and cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality are consistent with previous studies that used the PDI and provegetarian diet index. In a study of Spanish adults who were at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, higher adherence to a provegetarian diet index was associated with a 53% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and a 34% lower risk of all‐cause mortality. 10 In a study of nurses and health professionals in the United States, higher adherence to PDI was associated with a 8% lower risk of coronary heart disease. 12 In our study, higher scores in PDI and provegetarian diet index were associated with a 16% to 24% lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality, and higher intakes of animal products were associated with an elevated risk of all of 3 outcomes. Results from our study suggest that progressively increasing the intake of plant foods by reducing the intake of animal foods is associated with benefits on cardiovascular health and mortality risk.

Our results on higher intakes of animal foods and higher risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality are in line with many observational studies that reported that higher intakes of animal foods, particularly red and processed meat, are associated with an elevated risk of these outcomes. 4 , 5 , 25 , 26 Our results are also consistent with previous studies of vegetarian diets that characterized participants’ diets on the basis of the degree of animal food consumption. 24 In our sample, those in the highest quintiles of PDI and provegetarian diet index had higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, fiber, polyunsaturated fats, and many micronutrients and lower intakes of red and processed meat and saturated fat. All these characteristics can contribute to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, reducing inflammation, and improving glycemic control. 27 , 28 , 29

However, our results diverged from a prior study that found a lower risk of coronary heart disease with an hPDI and an elevated risk with a uPDI. It is surprising that no association was observed for hPDI and cardiovascular disease in our study, given that higher intakes of foods that have been associated with a lower risk with coronary heart disease were scored higher (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and plant proteins) in hPDI. When we modeled individual food groups within the plant‐based diet indexes simultaneously, we found that foods that were considered less healthy (ie, potatoes) were inversely associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality. It is possible that assigning reverse scores to these foods attenuated the associations with the overall hPDI and incident cardiovascular disease. Specifically, potatoes in relation to chronic disease outcomes have shown mixed results, with recent systematic reviews concluding no association with total potato consumption and cardiovascular risk factors (obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus), cardiovascular events, and all‐cause mortality. 30 , 31 In the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study) and HPFS (Health Professionals Follow‐Up Study), higher total potato consumption was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 32 , 33 However, in 2 Spanish cohorts, no significant association between potato consumption and hypertension was observed. 34 Given these conflicting findings, future studies may consider assigning reverse scores for fried potatoes but not all potatoes.

Unlike the NHS and HPFS, which found a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease with less healthy plant‐based diet scores, we found no significant associations for uPDI and incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality. 11 , 12 In our previous study, which used data from a nationally representative sample, we did not find associations between the uPDI and cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality. 13 It is possible that no true association exists between less healthy plant‐based diets and cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality. The lack of an association between less healthy plant‐based diets and outcomes in the present study may be caused by the scoring of potatoes as a less healthy food given that we observed dietary intake of potatoes to be inversely associated with outcomes. Further research in other study populations is warranted on the health implications of diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugar and low in fruits, vegetables, and animal foods.

We found that the magnitude of association for the overall diet was stronger than the associations for the individual food components within the overall dietary pattern. These results underscore the importance of comprehensively characterizing an individual's diet, rather than assessing the intake of a single food group or nutrient. Our approach accounts for potential synergistic and interactive effects of foods and nutrients on disease risk and is in line with how plant‐based diets are conceptualized (ie, higher intake of plant foods and lower intake of animal foods). 13 , 35 , 36 , 37

When we modeled individual food groups, there was no association between dairy or fish or seafood and all 3 outcomes. Previous studies have shown that plant‐rich diets that incorporated low‐fat dairy products (eg, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet) or fish (eg, the Mediterranean‐style diet) were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 In future studies, it may be worth exploring whether inclusion of dairy or fish in a plant‐based diet is associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases.

We add to the existing literature on plant‐based diets and chronic diseases by using a well‐characterized community‐based cohort with repeated dietary assessments and long‐term follow‐up. Several limitations should be accounted for when interpreting the study results. First, dietary intakes were self‐reported, which is subject to measurement error. However, the food frequency questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers, and the food frequency questionnaire has shown to have high reproducibility. 15 Second, we used a sample‐based scoring method to assess the degree of adherence to plant‐based diets. Those in the highest quintiles of all the plant‐based diet scores had higher intakes of plant foods and lower intakes of animal foods. However, we are unable to infer if there is an absolute level of plant food or animal food intake that is associated with health outcomes. Third, dietary intakes were measured several decades ago in the ARIC study thus, this study may not reflect the modern food supply. Studies with more recent data on plant‐based diets and cardiovascular disease are warranted. Last, the possibility of residual confounding remains because of unmeasured or incorrectly measured variables.

In conclusion, diets consisting of predominantly plant foods and that are lower in animal foods were associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general population. Dietary patterns that are relatively higher in plant foods and relatively lower in animal foods may confer benefits for cardiovascular health. Considering the adverse outcomes associated with refined carbohydrate consumption, 42 , 43 future research should continue to explore if the quality of plant foods (either healthy plant foods or less healthy plant foods) within the framework of plant‐based diets is associated with cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in a general population.

Author Contributions

Dr Kim wrote the manuscript and analyzed the data Drs Kim and Rebholz designed the study Drs Caulfield, Garcia‐Larsen, Steffen, and Coresh contributed important intellectual content during drafting or revising the manuscript. Dr Rebholz was involved in all aspects of the study from analyses to writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Sources of Funding

The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700004I, and HHSN268201700005I). Dr Kim was supported by the Department of International Health Tuition Scholarships, Bacon Chow Endowed Award, Harry D. Kruse Fellowship, and Harry J. Prebluda Fellowship from the Program in Human Nutrition in the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr Rebholz was supported by a Mentored Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K01 DK107782) and a grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R21 HL143089). The funding agencies had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, drafting of the manuscript, and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.


Eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables could cut obesity risk

Pro-vegetarian diets (with a higher consumption of plant-based foods compared to animal-based foods) could provide substantial protection against obesity, according to new research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Porto, Portugal (17-20 May).

This observational study found that people who ate a high pro-vegetarian diet -- rich in food coming from plant sources like vegetables, fruit, and grains -- cut their risk of developing obesity by almost half compared to those who were least pro-vegetarian -- with a dietary pattern rich in animal food like meat, and animal fats.

Current evidence suggests that such a pro-vegetarian diet has a protective role in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about its role on the risk of developing obesity in healthy populations.

The study was carried by University of Navarra student Julen Sanz under the supervision of Dr. Alfredo Gea and Professor Maira Bes-Rastrollo from the University of Navarra, and CIBERobn (Carlos III Institute of Health), Spain. They examined the association between varying degrees of pro-vegetarian (plant-based) diet and the incidence of obesity (body mass index BMI >30) in over 16,000 healthy, non-obese adults from the SUN Cohort (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) -- a study tracking the health of Spanish graduates since 1999.

Participants completed detailed food questionnaires at the start of the study, and researchers used a pro-vegetarian diet index (PVI) to score each participant on the types of food they ate. Points were given for eating seven plant food groups -- vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, olive oil, legumes (such as peas, beans, and lentils) and potatoes. Points were subtracted for five animal groups -- animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish and other seafood, and meat. Based on their scores, participants were categorised into five groups from the 20% with the least pro-vegetarian diet (quintile 1) to the 20% with the most (quintile 5), and followed for an average of 10 years.

During follow-up, 584 participants became obese. Die navorsers het bevind dat deelnemers wat 'n pro-vegetariese dieet noukeurig gevolg het, minder geneig was om vetsugtig te word. Modellering het getoon dat in vergelyking met die minste vegetariese deelnemers (kwintiel 1), die meeste vegetariër (kwintiel 5) 'n verminderde risiko van 43% het om vetsug te ontwikkel. Vir kwintiele 2, 3 en 4 was die verminderde risiko van vetsug onderskeidelik 6%, 15%en 17%, teenoor kwintiel 1. Die resultate was waar, ongeag ander invloedryke faktore, insluitend geslag, ouderdom, alkoholinname, BMI, familiegeskiedenis van vetsug, peusel tussen etes, rook, slaapduur en fisieke aktiwiteit.

Die skrywers erken dat hul bevindinge waarnemingsverskille toon eerder as bewys van oorsaak en gevolg. Hulle kom tot die gevolgtrekking: "Ons studie dui daarop dat plantaardige diëte verband hou met 'n aansienlik laer risiko om vetsug te ontwikkel. Dit ondersteun huidige aanbevelings om oor te skakel na dieet wat ryk is aan plantvoedsel, met 'n laer inname van dierlike voedsel."


Kyk die video: Kardiovaskularna oboljenja simptomi, srčane bolesti, kardiovaskularne bolesti, bolesti srca (Augustus 2022).